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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Key words Car accident ; Whiplash-type neck distortion ; Duration of complaints ; Injury mechanism ; Prognostic factors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An analysis was made of 1176 whiplash-type neck distortions taken from a total of 3838 restrained car driver incident reports. The percentage of whiplash-type neck distortion among injured drivers increased from less than 10% in 1985 to over 30% in 1997. Most occurred in head-on crashes or crashes with multiple collisions; only 15% occurred in rear-end collisions. More than 1,000 questionnaires were sent to the injured to find out about the duration and type of complaints caused by their cervical spine injury. Although only 138 (12%) returned the questionnaire, which may not be a representative sample, a further analysis was carried out. Of the 138, 121 (88%) indicated that they had suffered or were still suffering from their symptoms. The percentages of the various complaints were as follows: pain (74%), tension (6%) and stiffness (5%) in the head (27%), neck (55%) and shoulder (8%). The duration of the complaints was longest after multiple collisions and when the onset of complaints was longer than 24 h after trauma. Women and elderly persons predominated slightly in the group with longer duration of complaints. A correlation between the severity of the accompanying injuries and duration of complaints was found. Lack of adequate follow-up for patients with less severe injuries posed considerable difficulties for this retrospective study. In order to better evaluate this problem, prospective studies are necessary, with documentation including diagnosis, treatments, complaint duration and type.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-0431
    Keywords: Key words Car accident • Whiplash-type neck distortion ; Duration of complaints • Injury mechanism ; Prognostic factors ; Schlüsselwörter PKW-Unfall • HWS-Distorsion • Beschwerdedauer • Verletzungsmechanismus • Prognostische Faktoren
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Bei einer Unfallanalyse von 3.838 gurtgeschützten, angeschnallten PKW-Fahrer/-innen stieg der Anteil der HWS-Distorsionen von unter 10 % 1985 auf über 30 % 1997. Überwiegend traten diese bei frontalen oder mehrfachen Kollisionen auf. Nur bei 15 % der Patienten wurde die Verletzung durch einen reinen Heckanprall ausgelöst. In 23,2 % betrug δv 10 km/h und weniger, was einem sehr leichten Unfall entspricht. Bei frontalen Kollisionen wurde das höchste durchschnittliche δv erreicht; 1.136 der Verletzten wurden angeschrieben, um Dauer und Art eventueller Beschwerden zu ermitteln. Von den 138 Patienten, die den Fragebogen zurücksendeten gaben 121 (88 %) Beschwerden an. Es handelte sich dabei um Schmerzen (74 %), Verspannungen (6 %) und Bewegungseinschränkungen (5 %) im Bereich von Kopf (27 %), Nacken (55 %) und Schulter (8 %). Die Dauer der Beschwerden war am längsten nach mehrfachen Kollisionen und einem Beschwerdebeginn nach mehr als 24 h. Neben einem geringen Einfluß der Begleitverletzungen auf die Beschwerdedauer sind auch die individuelle Konstitution und Schmerzverarbeitung wesentliche Faktoren. Auch bei dieser retrospektiven Untersuchung bestanden erhebliche Schwierigkeiten hinsichtlich der Nachuntersuchung. Zur Lösung dieses Problems sind prospektive Studien mit genau festgelegten Protokollen zur Erfassung von Diagnose, Behandlungsart sowie Beschwerdedauer und -art erforderlich.
    Notes: Summary The analysis of 1,176 whiplash-type neck distortions was sought from a total of 3,838 restrained car driver incident reports. The percentage of these injuries increased from less than 10 % in 1985 to over 30 % in 1997. These occurred mostly with head-on or with multiple collisions, and only in 15 % with pure rear-end collisions. In 23,2 %, δv amounted 10 km/h or less, which corresponds to a very minor crash. The average δv was the highest in the cases of head-on collisions. Letters were sent to the injured to find out about the duration and type of complaints caused by a cervical spine injury. Of the 138 patients who returned the questionnaires, 121 (88 %) indicated that they had or were still suffering from their symptoms. Percentage of various complaints were as follows: pain (74 %), tension (6 %) and stiffness (5 %) in the head (27 %), neck (55 %) and shoulder (8 %). The duration of the complaints was longest after multiple collisions and when the onset of complaints was later than 24 hours after trauma. Women and elderly persons predominated slightly in the group with longer duration of complaints. A correlation between the severity of the accompanying injuries and duration of complaints occurred. Also, with this retrospective study there was considerable difficulties in the lack of adequate follow-up for these patients with less severe injuries. In order to better evaluate this problem, prospective studies are necessary which include documentation of diagnosis, treatment protocols, duration and type of complaints.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Liebigs Annalen 416 (1918), S. 291-304 
    ISSN: 0075-4617
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-8383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: New Synthesis of Dimethyl-cinnamoylimino-dithiocarboxylate and Reactions with NucleophilesA new general synthesis of dimethyl-cinnamoylimino-dithiocarboxylate 1d is possible by reaction of 4-nitro-cinnamoylamide with carbon disulfide in the presence of sodium hydride and following alkylation. With the unsubstituted dimethyl-cinnamoylimino-dithiocarboxylate 10 is in-vestigated the reaction behavior with nucleophilic compounds. The treatment of 1c with primary amines, respectively, by mono- and disubstitution of the methylthio groups yields isothiourea 2 or guanidines 3. Benzocondensed heterocycles are formed by reaction of 1c with o-bifunctional nucleo-philes.The compounds 5, 6 and 7 have been synthesized from 1c with cysteamine, p-phenylenediamine and ethylenediamine.The oxadiazole 8 and isothiosemicarbazide 9 are obtained by reaction of the dithioester 1c with hydrazides. On the other hand cyclisation to the 1,2,4-triazole 11 over the intermediate 10 and to the 1,3,5-triazine 12 are possible.The reaction of 1c with carbanions in a basic medium affords acrylic derivatives 13.In the same way we isolated by reaction of dithioester 1c with a benzothiazolium salt the dark coloured compound 14. The physical properties of synthesized compounds are discussed by mass-, 1H-n.m.r.-, i.r.- and u.v.-spectra.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-8383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Synthesis and Reaction Behaviour of N-(3-Chlorobenzo[b]thiophene-2-carbonyl)-imino-dithiocarbonic Derivatives3-Chlorobenzo[b]thiophene-2-carbonyl-chloride 1 was treated with potassium rhodanide to afford the appropriate acyl isothiocyanate 3, which adds nucleophilic agents as amines and thioles in good yields.Addition of methanethiole and subsequent alkylation of the dithiocarbamate 7 gives S, S-dimethylimino-dithiocarbonate 8. 3-Chlorobenzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamide 2 reacts with carbon disulphide and phenyl isothiocyanate by chlorine substitution and cyclisation to benzo[b]thieno[2, 3-e]thiazines 9, 10 or 11. The structure of the final products were determined by analytical and spectroscopical dates.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-8383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 1H- and 13C-N.M.R. Investigations of N-Acyl-imino-dithiocarbonic-S,S-dimethylester
    Additional Material: 3 Tab.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0021-8383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Reactions with N-Acylimino-dithiocarbonic-acid-diesters.Reactions of N-acylimino-dithiocarbonic-acid-S,S-diesters 1 with nucleophilic com-pounds present new possibilities to synthesize heterocycles. With amines 1a reacts by mono- and disubstitution, respectively, of methylthio-groups to isothioureas 2 and guanidines 3, with 1,2-bi-nucleophilic arenes to benzoheterocycles 4, with aliphatic diamines to imidazolidines 5, pyrimidines 6, diazepines 7 and the hexamethylene-diamine-derivatives 8. 1a reacts also with hydrazines to 1,2,4-triazoles 9 and with hydrazides to the thiosemicarbazones 10 or 1,3,4-oxadiazoles 11. Heterocyclisations of 1 with guanidines, thiourea, salts of thiourea and amidines give the 1,3,5-triazines 12, 14, 15 and 16. N-benzoyl-dithiocarbonic-acid-methylester -amid reacts with CH-acidic compounds to thiazoles 17. The structures of the final products are determined by i.r.-, 1H-n.m.r.-, u.v.- and mass-spectras.
    Additional Material: 9 Tab.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-8383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Reaction Behaviour of Amides with Carbondisulphide and IsothiocyanatesReactions of substituted arylamides, hetarylamides and furylacrylicamide 1 with carbon disulphide present a possibility to synthesize imino-dithiocarbonic-S,S′-diester 5. The mechanism of the reaction and the reaction conditions are investigated. Quantum chemical investigations by simple HMO-method in connection with the experimental results describe the reaction in dependence upon the influence of substituent in 2- and 4-position to the phenylring. Further more is described the reaction of amide with isothiocyanates to thiourea 6 and isothiourea 7.The structures of the final products are determined by analytical dates.
    Additional Material: 4 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0021-8383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Reactions of Dimethyl N-Aroyl(Hetaroyl)carbimidodithioates with Carbanions CH-acidic CompoundsReactions of dimethyl N-aroyl(hetaroyl)carbimidodithioates 1 with carbanions 2 present new possibilities to synthesize 3-acyl-amino-3-methylthio-2-subst.-acrylnitriles 3 by monosubstitution of methylthiogroup.The reaction of 1 with 2-alkyl-benzothiazolium salts 4 yield deeply coloured N-acyl-(2,3-dihydrobenzothiazole-2-yliden) thioacetimido acid-methylates 5 of the 2-subst.-benzothiazoliumperchlorates 6. The structures of the final products are determined by i.r.-, 1H.-n.m.r.- and u.v.-spectra.
    Additional Material: 3 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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