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  • PATIENT  (9)
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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; LUNG ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; METABOLISM ; TISSUE ; PATIENT ; RISK-FACTORS ; FREQUENCY ; polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; PROMOTER ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; WOMEN ; MEN ; risk factors ; smoking ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; cancer risk ; RISK FACTOR ; CYP3A4 ; LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUM ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; CARCINOMAS ; POLYMERASE-CHAIN-REACTION ; adenocarcinoma ; ADENOCARCINOMAS ; CARRIERS ; case-control studies ; CLINICAL PRESENTATION ; CYP3A,genetic polymorphism,lung cancer susceptibility,small cell lung cancer,LightCycler ; EXPRESSED HUMAN CYTOCHROME-P450S ; GENETIC VARIANT ; HUMAN LIVER-MICROSOMES ; PROSTATE TUMORS ; PROTEIN LEVELS ; squamous cell carcinoma ; TOBACCO
    Abstract: CYP3A isozymes are involved in tobacco carcinogen- and steroid-metabolism, and are expressed in human lung tissue showing interindividual variation in expression and activity. The CYP3A4* 1 B allele has been associated with a two-fold higher promoter activity and with high-grade prostate cancers. The very frequent intron 3 polymorphism in the CYP3A5 gene (CYP3A5*3) results in decreased CYP3A5 protein levels. A case-control study was conducted in 801 Caucasian lung cancer patients that included 330 adenocarcinomas, 260 squamous cell carcinomas, 171 small cell lung cancers (SCLC) and 432 Caucasian hospital-based controls. CYP3A-genotyping was performed by capillary polymerase chain reaction followed by fluorescence-based melting curve analysis. A significantly increased SCLC risk for CYP3A4* 1B allele carriers [odds ratio (OR) 2.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-4.55, P = 0.02] was found. After dividing cases and controls by gender, an increased lung cancer risk for CYP3A4* 1B carriers (OR 3.04, 95% CI 0.94-9.90, P= 0.06) for women but not for men (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.56-1.81) was revealed. Heavier smoking men (greater than or equal to 20 pack-years) with the CYP3A4* 1 B allele had a significant OR for lung cancer of 3.42 (95% CI 1.65-7.14, P= 0.001) compared to * 1A/1* 1A carriers with lower tobacco exposure (〈 20 pack-years). For women, the respective OR was 8.00 (95% CI 2.12-30.30, P = 0.005). Genotype frequencies were generally in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except for CYP3A5 where a greater than expected number of CYP3A5* 1 homozygotes was observed among cases (P = 0.006). In addition, we observed linkage disequilibrium of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 (P 〈 0.00001), but a nonsignificantly increased lung cancer risk was only found for homozygous CYP3A5* 1 allele carriers (OR 5.24,95% CI 0.85-102.28, P = 0.14) but not for heterozygotes. To confirm our observation that the CYP3A4* 1B allele increases SCLC risk and modifies the smoking-related lung cancer risk in a gender-specific manner, further studies, including CYP3A haplotype analysis, will be necessary. Pharmacogenetics 13:607-618 (C) 2003 Lippincott Williams Wilkins
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14515059
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  • 2
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CELLS ; IN-VITRO ; tumor ; AGENTS ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; INHIBITION ; THERAPY ; VITRO ; VIVO ; SAMPLES ; TUMORS ; TIME ; PATIENT ; INDUCTION ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; CYCLE ; treatment ; PROGRESSION ; resistance ; INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; PLASMA ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; chemotherapy ; ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC-LEUKEMIA ; DERIVATIVES ; HEPATOMA-CELLS ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; CARCINOMAS ; PHARMACOKINETICS ; AGENT ; SINGLE ; ONCOLOGY ; RE ; EX-VIVO ; SOLID TUMORS ; MEDIATED APOPTOSIS ; MOLECULAR-MECHANISMS ; LEVEL ; analysis ; methods ; PLASMA-LEVELS ; dexamethasone ; PROMOTION ; USA ; GLUCOCORTICOIDS ; prospective ; in vivo ; clinical study
    Abstract: Background: Glucocorticoids have been used widely in conjunction with cancer therapy due to their ability to induce apoptosis in hematological cells and to prevent nausea and emesis. However, recent data including ours, suggest induction of therapy resistance by glucocorticoids in solid tumors, although it is unclear whether this happens only in few carcinomas or is a more common cell type specific phenomenon. Material and Methods: We performed an overall statistical analysis of our new and recent data obtained with 157 tumor probes evaluated in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. The effect of glucocorticoids on apoptosis, viability and cell cycle progression under diverse clinically important questions was examined. Results: New in vivo results demonstrate glucocorticoid - induced chemotherapy resistance in xenografted prostate cancer. In an overall statistical analysis we found glucocorticoid - induced resistance in 89% of 157 analysed tumor samples. Resistance is common for several cytotoxic treatments and for several glucocorticoid - derivatives and due to an inhibition of apoptosis, promotion of viability and cell cycle progression. Resistance occurred at clinically achievable peak plasma levels of patients under anti - emetic glucocorticoid therapy and below, lasted for a long time, after one single dose, but was reversible upon removal of glucocorticoids. Two nonsteroidal alternative anti - emetic agents did not counteract anticancer treatment and may be sufficient to replace gluco corticoids in cotreatment of carcinoma patients. Conclusion: These data demonstrate the need for prospective clinical studies as well as for detailed mechanistic studies of GC - induced cell - type specific pro - and anti - apoptotic signalling
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17224649
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; tumor ; carcinoma ; Germany ; LUNG ; neoplasms ; SYSTEM ; SYSTEMS ; TUMORS ; SURGERY ; PATIENT ; kidney ; EXPERIENCE ; RADIOFREQUENCY ABLATION ; RESECTION ; FEASIBILITY ; RADIO-FREQUENCY ABLATION ; THERMAL ABLATION ; surgical resection ; CANDIDATES ; INITIAL-EXPERIENCE ; PULMONARY METASTASES
    Abstract: Background. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has received high interest in the treatment of primary and secondary lung neoplasms. Clinical experience continues to accumulate; however, the biologic effects after ablation remain poorly understood. This study evaluated the safety and feasibility of RFA in an open thoracotomy setting and investigated the early histopathologic changes after RFA. Methods. The study enrolled 18 subjects with multiple pulmonary metastases from a solid primary tumor. RFA was performed at an open thoracotomy setting, followed by wedge resection of the ablated tumor. Results. No intraoperative complications during the RFA procedure occurred. Immunostaining revealed a complete ablation in 7 patients (39%). The grade of ablation was greater than 90% in 9 patients (50%), and less than 90% in 2 (11%). No correlation was found between the grade of ablation and the applied energy and the diameter of the lesion. Conclusions. Intraoperative RFA in an open thoracotomy setting appears to be a safe and feasible technique. Tumor devitalization sufficient for local control was achieved in 89% in our series. Ablation was incomplete in 11%, subject to the methods used in this study. This result appears to be inferior to metastasectomy by surgical resection
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19161742
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  • 4
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; tumor ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; LUNG ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; SYSTEM ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; PATIENT ; RISK-FACTORS ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; CYCLE ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; BREAST-CANCER ; risk factors ; smoking ; p53 ; cancer risk ; MUTATIONS ; TRANSFORMATION ; SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA ; adenocarcinoma ; case-control studies ; squamous cell carcinoma ; GASTRIC-CANCER ; DNA repair ; DNA-REPAIR GENES ; molecular epidemiology ; ONCOLOGY ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; RE ; TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR ; VARIANT ; INCREASE ; CARCINOGEN ; case control studies ; analysis ; SUPPRESSOR ; GENOTYPE ; adenocarcinoma of the lung ; HISTOLOGY ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; PROLINE ; SQUAMOUS-CELL ; INCREASES ; cell cycle control ; CODON-72 ; P53 POLYMORPHISM
    Abstract: Alterations in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis leading to malignant transformation could be caused by common genetic variants in tumor suppressor genes. The effects of the TP53 polymorphism Arg72Pro on lung cancer risk have been investigated in numerous studies with, however, conflicting results. In many studies, important risk modifiers such as smoking or tumor histology were not taken into account. We therefore investigated the combined effects of polymorphisms in TP53 (Arg72Pro) and p21/CDKN1A (Ser31Arg) and smoking on lung cancer risk. Our case-control study consisted of 405 patients with lung cancer, mainly squamous-cell carcinoma (185) and adenocarcinoma (177) and 404 unmatched tumor-free hospital controls. Multivariate regression analysis showed a moderate but statistically significant risk of lung cancer overall. and especially of squamous-cell carcinoma (OR, 1.65; CI, 1.10-2.47) for TP53 72Pro allele carriers. The risk was markedly increased in heavy smokers (〉 20 pack-years) with squamous-cell carcinoma (OR, 2.80 in patients homozygous for 72Pro; CI, 1.19-6.58), but not in tight smokers (〈= 20 pack-years). The results for the p21 Ser31Arg polymorphism suggested that 31Ser is a moderate-risk allele for squamous-cell carcinoma. Analysis of the combined effects of the two polymorphisms revealed a higher OR for TP53 72Pro carriers homozygous for p21 31Ser than for 72Pro carriers in general; this effect being most pronounced in heavy smokers with squamous-cell carcinoma (OR, 3.84; CI, 1.46-10.1). Our data indicate that the TP53 Arg72Pro polymorphism increases the risk for squamous-cell carcinoma mainly in heavy smokers. The observed interaction with smoking is biologically plausible as, for the 72Pro p53 variant, decreased apoptosis and extended G1 cell cycle arrest is reported after carcinogen exposure. Nevertheless, confirmation by further molecular and epidemiological studies is warranted. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17059853
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; SURVIVAL ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; carcinoma ; CELL ; evaluation ; Germany ; SYSTEM ; SYSTEMS ; HISTORY ; GENES ; SURGERY ; TIME ; PATIENT ; murine ; FAMILY ; MARKER ; IMPACT ; ANTIGEN ; STAGE ; IDENTIFICATION ; LESIONS ; PROGRESSION ; AGE ; WOMEN ; METASTASIS ; colorectal cancer ; MEN ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; metastases ; MARKERS ; MELANOMA ; PROGNOSTIC-FACTORS ; RESECTION ; PARAMETERS ; ONCOGENE ; INVOLVEMENT ; PROGNOSTIC FACTORS ; SELECTION ; SERUM ; SUBSET ; COLORECTAL-CARCINOMA ; PATIENT SURVIVAL ; MAGE ; lung metastases ; PROGNOSTIC-FACTOR ; LEVEL ; PROGNOSTIC MARKER ; FOS ; EVENTS ; vascular endothelial growth factor ; colorectal ; PROMOTES ; colorectal carcinoma ; growth factor ; PULMONARY METASTASES ; metastasectomy ; OPINION ; thoracic surgery ; TUMOR LYMPHANGIOGENESIS
    Abstract: Background: Although aggressive resection of pulmonary metastases prolongs the survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, there is a need for predictive pathologic parameters to understand the key molecular events of metastatic progression. The aim of this study was to verify immunohistochemical markers in addition to established clinical parameters after surgery. Methods: From our subset of patients undergoing resection of pulmonary metastases from metastatic colorectal carcinoma, we analyzed 39 patients (23 men and 16 women) between 2003 and 2007. Only patients who met the criteria for a potentially curative operation were included. All patients were analyzed with regard to age and sex, primary tumor location, stage of the primary tumor, history of hepatic metastases, number of pulmonary metastases, pre-thoracotomy carcinoembryonic (CEA) serum antigen level, and the presence of thoracic lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, we immunohistochemically investigated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D, FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (FOS-B), and melanoma antigen (MAGE)-A in the Surgical specimens of pulmonary metastatic lesions. Results: The overall 3-year survival was 50.6%. A significantly longer survival was observed with multivariate analysis in patients with a pre-thoracotomy serum carcinoembryonic antigen level of no more than 4.2 ng/mL (p=0.001), and Dukes stage A or B primary tumor (p=0.001). A significantly longer recurrence-free survival was observed with multivariate analysis in patients without thoracic lymph node involvement compared to patients with pulmonary and/or mediastinal lymph node metastases (p=0.006). The stage of the primary tumor remained significant (p=0.029), and FOS-B expression in tumor cells showed a trend towards favorable recurrence-free survival after pulmonary metastasectomy (p=0.059). No statistically significant difference was found in the overall survival rate or recurrence-free survival rate of patients with expression of VEGF-D or MAGE-A antigen in pulmonary metastatic tumor cells. Conclusions: Our results suggest that in addition to clinically prognostic factors, FOS-B expression has a debatable impact on patient Survival. We conclude that the evaluation of molecular and clinical prognostic parameters at the time of pulmonary metastasectomy offers a greater understanding of the metastatic process and provides important information for patient selection
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19795327
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; carcinoma ; CELL ; COMBINATION ; Germany ; LUNG ; PATHWAY ; INFORMATION ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; PATIENT ; DNA ; RISK-FACTORS ; recombination ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; IDENTIFICATION ; HUMANS ; AGE ; REPAIR ; risk factors ; smoking ; cancer risk ; DAMAGE ; RISK FACTOR ; HIGH-RISK ; ADDUCTS ; adenocarcinoma ; case-control studies ; squamous cell carcinoma ; INDIVIDUALS ; sensitivity ; EXCISION-REPAIR ; ACID SUBSTITUTION VARIANTS ; non-small cell lung cancer ; CELL CARCINOMA ; case-control study ; VARIANT ; OCCUPATIONAL-EXPOSURE ; CAPACITY ; ALLELE ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; XRCC1 POLYMORPHISMS ; XPD ; XRCC1
    Abstract: Several polymorphisms in DNA repair genes have been reported to be associated with lung cancer risk including XPA (-4G/A), XPD (Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn), XRCC1 (Arg399Gln), APE1 (Asp148Glu) and XRCC3 (Thr241Met). As there is little information on the combined effects of these variants, polymorphisms were analyzed in a case-control study including 463 lung cancer cases [among them 204 adenocarcinoma and 212 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)] and 460 tumor-free hospital controls. Odds ratios (OR) adjusted for age, gender, smoking and occupational exposure were calculated for the variants alone and combinations thereof. For homozygous individuals carrying the Glu variant of APE1, a protective effect was found (OR = 0.77, CI = 0.51-1.16). Individuals homozygous for the variants XPA (-4A) (OR = 1.53, CI = 0.94-2.5), XPD 751Gln (OR = 1.39, CI = 0.90-2.14) or XRCC3 241Met (OR = 1.29, CI = 0.85-1.98) showed a slightly higher risk for lung cancer overall. In the subgroup of adenocarcinoma cases, adjusted ORs were increased for individuals homozygous for XPA (-4A) (OR = 1.62, CI = 0.91-2.88) and XRCC3 241Met (OR = 1.65; CI = 0.99-2.75). When analyzing the combined effects of variant alleles, 54 patients and controls were identified that were homozygous for two or three of the potential risk alleles [i.e. the variants in nucleotide excision repair, XPA (-4A) and XPD 751Gln, and in homologous recombination, XRCC3-241Met]. ORs were significantly increased when all patients (OR = 2.37; CI = 1.26-4.48), patients with SCC (OR = 2.83; CI = 1.17-6.85) and with adenocarcinoma (OR = 3.05; CI = 1.49-6.23) were analyzed. Combinations of polymorphisms in genes involved in the same repair pathway (XPA + XPD or XRCC1 + APE1) affected lung cancer risk only in patients with SCC. These results indicate that lung cancer risk is only moderately increased by single DNA repair gene variants investigated but it is considerably enhanced by specific combinations of variant alleles. Analyses of additional DNA repair gene interactions in larger population-based studies are warranted for identification of high-risk subjects
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15333465
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  • 7
  • 8
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; INHIBITOR ; CELL ; Germany ; LUNG ; MODEL ; MODELS ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; PATIENT ; MECHANISM ; CARCINOGENESIS ; mechanisms ; CELL-CYCLE ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; NO ; DIFFERENCE ; PROMOTER ; AGE ; WOMEN ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; smoking ; p53 ; REGION ; MDM2 ; HEALTHY ; DNA repair ; protein expression ; CELL-GROWTH ; ONCOLOGY ; RE ; SUBTYPES ; GENOTYPE ; GENDER ; PROMOTER REGION ; ENGLAND ; CIGARETTE ; interactions ; ACCELERATES TUMOR-FORMATION ; SNP309
    Abstract: The polymorphism SNP309 (rs2279744) in the promoter region of the MDM2 gene has been shown to alter protein expression and may play a role in the susceptibility to lung cancer. The MDM2 protein is a key inhibitor of p53 and several mechanisms of MDM2/p53 interactions are presently known: modulating DNA-repair, cell-cycle control, cell growth and apoptosis. We used 635 Caucasian patients diagnosed with lung cancer before 51 years of age and 1300 healthy gender and age frequency matched population Caucasian controls to investigate the association between the MDM2 SNP309 and the risk of developing early onset lung cancer. Conditional logistic models were applied to assess the genotype-phenotype association, adjusted for smoking. Compared to the GG genotype, the adjusted ORs for the TG and TT genotype were 0.9 (95% CI: 0.7-1.5) and 1.0 ( 95% CI: 0.7-1.5), respectively. Also no association was found for histological subtypes of lung cancer. The strength of this study is that within young cases the genetic component to develop lung cancer may be greater. Our results indicate that the MDM2 SNP309 is not significantly associated with lung carcinogenesis but point towards gender-specific differences
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18433484
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; LUNG ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; METABOLISM ; PATIENT ; RISK-FACTORS ; CARCINOGENESIS ; GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; BREAST-CANCER ; AGE ; WOMEN ; SNP ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; smoking ; cancer risk ; RISK FACTOR ; METABOLIC-ACTIVATION ; GENOTYPES ; genetic polymorphism ; case-control studies ; TOBACCO ; INDIVIDUALS ; case-control study ; ESTROGEN ; SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; GENOTYPE ; pooled analysis ; INCREASED RISK ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; CYTOCHROMES P450 1A1 ; Haplotype analysis ; Genetic ; INVESTIGATE ; CONFIDENCE ; PROPORTION ; CYTOCHROME-P450 ; AFRICAN-AMERICANS ; HUMAN CYP2A13 GENE ; TOBACCO-SPECIFIC CARCINOGEN
    Abstract: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, involved in metabolism of tobacco carcinogens, are also involved in estrogen metabolism and many are regulated by estrogens. These genes may thus be of relevance to gender-specific differences in lung cancer risk, particularly in early-onset lung cancer, where a high proportion of women is observed. We conducted a case-control study to investigate genetic polymorphisms in cytochromes that might modify the risk of developing early-onset lung cancer. In total, 638 Caucasian patients under the age of 51 with primary lung cancer and 1300 cancer-free control individuals, matched by age and sex, were included in this analysis. Thirteen polymorphisms in the CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A13, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes were analyzed. No significant association was found for any of the analyzed polymorphisms and lung cancer risk overall. However, among women, a significantly increased risk of early-onset lung cancer was observed for carriers of the minor allele of CYP1B1 SNP rs1056836 [odds ratio (OR) 1.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-2.94; P 〈 0.001]. Also, a non-significant increase in lung cancer risk was observed in the group of women carriers of the minor allele of CYP2A13 SNP rs1709084 (OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.00-2.70; P = 0.05). The effect of these two polymorphisms was shown to be modified by smoking. Haplotype analysis was performed for CYP1B1 and CYP2A13. No differences between cases and controls were observed for both genes (P = 0.63 and P = 0.42 for CYP1B1 and CYP2A13, respectively). Our results suggest that the CYP1B1 and the CYP2A13 genotypes may contribute to individual susceptibility to early-onset lung cancer in women
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19414505
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