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  • POLYMORPHISMS  (11)
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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; LUNG ; COMMON ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; HYBRIDIZATION ; DNA ; MECHANISM ; primary ; RISK-FACTORS ; mechanisms ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; NO ; AMPLIFICATION ; AGE ; DNA-REPAIR ; REPAIR ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; risk factors ; smoking ; PCR ; cancer risk ; DAMAGE ; RISK FACTOR ; REGION ; CARCINOGENS ; adenocarcinoma ; case-control studies ; squamous cell carcinoma ; INDIVIDUALS ; CANCER-RESEARCH ; SMOKERS ; NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION-REPAIR ; CELL CARCINOMA ; case control study ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; OCCUPATIONAL-EXPOSURE ; CARCINOGEN ; HEAVY ; LUNG ADENOCARCINOMA ; PIGMENTOSUM GROUP-A
    Abstract: Polymorphisms of genes coding for DNA repair can affect lung cancer risk. A common single nucleotide (-4) G-to-A polymorphism was identified previously in the 5' untranslated region of the XPA gene. In a case-control study in European Caucasians, the influence of this polymorphism on primary lung cancer risk overall and according to histologic subtypes was investigated. Four hundred sixty-three lung cancer cases (including 204 adenocarcinoma and 212 squamous cell carcinoma) and 460 tumor-free hospital controls were investigated using PCR amplification and melting point analysis of sequence-specific hybridization probes. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated by multiple logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, gender, smoking habits, and occupational exposure and showed a slightly enhanced risk for all lung cancer cases as well as for squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cases. Gene-environment interactions were analyzed with respect to smoking and occupational exposure. A nearly 3-fold increased risk for adenocarcinoma associated with the XPA AA genotype was observed for occupationally exposed individuals (OR, 2.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-6.14) and for heavy smokers (OR, 2.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-5.42). No genotype-dependent increase in OR was found for nonexposed individuals or those smoking 〈20 pack-years. The significant effect of the XPA polymorphism in heavy smokers and occupationally exposed individuals suggests an important gene-environment interaction for the XPA gene. The underlying mechanisms as to why AA homozygotes are predisposed to lung adenocarcinoma and which specific carcinogens are involved remains to be determined
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15598786
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  • 2
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; tumor ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; LUNG ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; SYSTEM ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; PATIENT ; RISK-FACTORS ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; CYCLE ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; BREAST-CANCER ; risk factors ; smoking ; p53 ; cancer risk ; MUTATIONS ; TRANSFORMATION ; SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA ; adenocarcinoma ; case-control studies ; squamous cell carcinoma ; GASTRIC-CANCER ; DNA repair ; DNA-REPAIR GENES ; molecular epidemiology ; ONCOLOGY ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; RE ; TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR ; VARIANT ; INCREASE ; CARCINOGEN ; case control studies ; analysis ; SUPPRESSOR ; GENOTYPE ; adenocarcinoma of the lung ; HISTOLOGY ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; PROLINE ; SQUAMOUS-CELL ; INCREASES ; cell cycle control ; CODON-72 ; P53 POLYMORPHISM
    Abstract: Alterations in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis leading to malignant transformation could be caused by common genetic variants in tumor suppressor genes. The effects of the TP53 polymorphism Arg72Pro on lung cancer risk have been investigated in numerous studies with, however, conflicting results. In many studies, important risk modifiers such as smoking or tumor histology were not taken into account. We therefore investigated the combined effects of polymorphisms in TP53 (Arg72Pro) and p21/CDKN1A (Ser31Arg) and smoking on lung cancer risk. Our case-control study consisted of 405 patients with lung cancer, mainly squamous-cell carcinoma (185) and adenocarcinoma (177) and 404 unmatched tumor-free hospital controls. Multivariate regression analysis showed a moderate but statistically significant risk of lung cancer overall. and especially of squamous-cell carcinoma (OR, 1.65; CI, 1.10-2.47) for TP53 72Pro allele carriers. The risk was markedly increased in heavy smokers (〉 20 pack-years) with squamous-cell carcinoma (OR, 2.80 in patients homozygous for 72Pro; CI, 1.19-6.58), but not in tight smokers (〈= 20 pack-years). The results for the p21 Ser31Arg polymorphism suggested that 31Ser is a moderate-risk allele for squamous-cell carcinoma. Analysis of the combined effects of the two polymorphisms revealed a higher OR for TP53 72Pro carriers homozygous for p21 31Ser than for 72Pro carriers in general; this effect being most pronounced in heavy smokers with squamous-cell carcinoma (OR, 3.84; CI, 1.46-10.1). Our data indicate that the TP53 Arg72Pro polymorphism increases the risk for squamous-cell carcinoma mainly in heavy smokers. The observed interaction with smoking is biologically plausible as, for the 72Pro p53 variant, decreased apoptosis and extended G1 cell cycle arrest is reported after carcinogen exposure. Nevertheless, confirmation by further molecular and epidemiological studies is warranted. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17059853
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; Germany ; human ; LUNG ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; DRUG ; FAMILY ; GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS ; SEQUENCE ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; PROMOTER ; EFFICACY ; cancer risk ; REGION ; CARRIERS ; VARIANT ; ALLELE ; CHINESE ; CYP3AP1,CYP3A5,CYP3A4,pseudogene,polymorphism,linkage disequilibrium
    Abstract: Genetic polymorphisms of the human CYP3A family affect clinical drug efficacy and may modify cancer risk. CYP3A genes show high sequence similarity that had previously lead to misallocation of CYP3A polymorphisms. Recent studies indicated a high degree of or even complete linkage for certain CYP3A alleles. Reliable LightCycler-based genotyping methods were developed and their degree of linkage in a large Caucasian population (n = 1210) investigated. Strong linkage disequilibrium was confirmed between CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3AP1 (each at P 〈 10(-5)). Contrary to some previous results claiming complete linkage between the phenotypically relevant CYP3A5(*) 1 and a variant in a pseudogene promoter region CYP3AP1(*) 1, we found among 428 controls (15 of 66) and 782 lung cancer cases (25 of 115) approximately 22% of CYP3AP1(*) 1/(*) 3 carriers to be homozygous for CYP3A5(*) 3. We conclude that contrary to previous assumptions, the CYP3AP1 genotype is not a reliable predictor for CYP3A5 activity. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15050738
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; INVASION ; tumor ; Germany ; LUNG ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; DISEASE ; RISK ; GENE ; SAMPLE ; TISSUE ; TISSUES ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; BREAST-CANCER ; HEALTH ; PROMOTER ; AGE ; METASTASIS ; smoking ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; REGION ; REGIONS ; EXTRACELLULAR-MATRIX ; OVEREXPRESSION ; MMP ; MATRIX ; ONCOLOGY ; RE ; INCREASE ; MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; SNPs ; intensity ; TUMOR TISSUE ; biomarker ; analysis ; HAPLOTYPE ; GENOTYPE DATA ; USA ; cancer research ; CIGARETTE-SMOKE ; matrix metalloproteinase ; MATRIX-METALLOPROTEINASE ; GENE POLYMORPHISM ; NUCLEOTIDE ; MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE-1 ; METALLOPROTEINASE-1 PROMOTER POLYMORPHISM ; TISSUE INHIBITORS
    Abstract: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) play a key role in the breakdown of extracellular matrix and in inflammatory processes. MMP1 is the most highly expressed interstitial collagenase degrading fibrillar collagens. Overexpression of MMP1 has been shown in tumor tissues and has been suggested to be associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. Nine haplotype tagging and additional two intronic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of MMPI were genotyped in a case control sample, consisting of 635 lung cancer cases with onset of disease below 51 years of age and 1,300 age- and sex-matched cancer-free controls. Two regions of linkage disequilibrium (LD) of MMP1 could be observed: a region of low LD comprising the 5' region including the promoter and a region of high LD starting from exon 1 to the end of the gene and including the 3' flanking region. Several SNPs were identified to be individually significantly associated with risk of early-onset lung cancer. The most significant effect was seen for rs1938901 (P = 0.0089), rs193008 (P = 0.0108), and rs996999 (P = 0.0459). For rs996999, significance vanished after correction for multiple testing. For each of these SNPs, the major allele was associated with an increase in risk with an odds ratio between 1.2 and 1.3 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.5). The haplotype analysis supported these findings, especially for subgroups with high smoking intensity. In summary, we identified MMPI to be associated with an increased risk for lung cancer, which was modified by smoking
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18483334
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  • 5
    Keywords: lung cancer ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS ; ASSOCIATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; AGE ; smoking ; DETOXIFYING ENZYMES ; glutathione-S-transferase ; METAANALYSIS ; MICROSOMAL EPOXIDE HYDROLASE ; GENDER ; YOUNG-PATIENTS ; early onset ; THAN 50 YEARS
    Abstract: Early-onset lung cancer diagnosed up to the age of 50 is a very rare disease, with an increasing incidence rate. Differences in aetiology, characteristics and epidemiology of early and older onset lung cancer have been described previously, suggesting the importance of genetic factors in early-onset lung cancer aetiology. A case-control study was conducted to investigate the effects of genetic polymorphisms in the MPO, EPHX1, GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTP1 and NQO1 genes on the risk of early-onset lung cancer development. Six hundred thirty-eight Caucasian patients under the age of 51 with confirmed primary lung cancer and 1,300 cancer free control individuals, matched by age and sex, were included in this analysis. Seventeen single nucleotide polymorphisms and two deletion polymorphisms were genotyped. No significant association was found for any of the analyzed polymorphisms and overall lung cancer risk. Nonsignificantly decreased risk of lung cancer was observed for carriers of 1 or 2 copies of GSTM1. Subgroup analysis revealed gender- and/or smoking-specific effects of EPHX1 rs2854455 (IV-1464C 〉 T) and rs2234922 (His139Arg), GSTT1 deletion, GSTP1 rs1695 (Ile105Val), rs947895 (+991C 〉 A) and rs4891 (Ser185Ser) and NQO1 rs1800566 (Pro187Ser) polymorphisms. However, none of the observed effects were confirmed by interaction tests nor were they significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. In summary, our study suggested a modifying effect of polymorphisms in EPHX1, GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1 and NQO1 genes on the risk of early-onset lung cancer. To confirm these observations and to eliminate possible bias in our analyses, larger studies are warranted
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20091863
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER-RISK ; pharmacology ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; cancer risk ; TOBACCO ; LUNG ; CANCER ; LUNG-CANCER ; lung cancer ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES
    Type of Publication: Meeting abstract published
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  • 7
    Keywords: risk factors ; genetic polymorphism ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; ONCOLOGY ; RISK ; RISK-FACTORS ; GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS ; LUNG ; RISK-FACTOR ; ENGLAND ; DEHYDROGENASE
    Type of Publication: Meeting abstract published
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  • 8
    Keywords: ENGLAND ; RISK-FACTOR ; LUNG ; CANCER ; RISK-FACTORS ; RISK ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; ONCOLOGY ; glutathione-S-transferase ; POLYMORPHISMS ; polymorphism ; risk factors
    Type of Publication: Meeting abstract published
    PubMed ID: 18550570
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; carcinoma ; CELL ; COMBINATION ; Germany ; LUNG ; PATHWAY ; INFORMATION ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; PATIENT ; DNA ; RISK-FACTORS ; recombination ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; IDENTIFICATION ; HUMANS ; AGE ; REPAIR ; risk factors ; smoking ; cancer risk ; DAMAGE ; RISK FACTOR ; HIGH-RISK ; ADDUCTS ; adenocarcinoma ; case-control studies ; squamous cell carcinoma ; INDIVIDUALS ; sensitivity ; EXCISION-REPAIR ; ACID SUBSTITUTION VARIANTS ; non-small cell lung cancer ; CELL CARCINOMA ; case-control study ; VARIANT ; OCCUPATIONAL-EXPOSURE ; CAPACITY ; ALLELE ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; XRCC1 POLYMORPHISMS ; XPD ; XRCC1
    Abstract: Several polymorphisms in DNA repair genes have been reported to be associated with lung cancer risk including XPA (-4G/A), XPD (Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn), XRCC1 (Arg399Gln), APE1 (Asp148Glu) and XRCC3 (Thr241Met). As there is little information on the combined effects of these variants, polymorphisms were analyzed in a case-control study including 463 lung cancer cases [among them 204 adenocarcinoma and 212 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)] and 460 tumor-free hospital controls. Odds ratios (OR) adjusted for age, gender, smoking and occupational exposure were calculated for the variants alone and combinations thereof. For homozygous individuals carrying the Glu variant of APE1, a protective effect was found (OR = 0.77, CI = 0.51-1.16). Individuals homozygous for the variants XPA (-4A) (OR = 1.53, CI = 0.94-2.5), XPD 751Gln (OR = 1.39, CI = 0.90-2.14) or XRCC3 241Met (OR = 1.29, CI = 0.85-1.98) showed a slightly higher risk for lung cancer overall. In the subgroup of adenocarcinoma cases, adjusted ORs were increased for individuals homozygous for XPA (-4A) (OR = 1.62, CI = 0.91-2.88) and XRCC3 241Met (OR = 1.65; CI = 0.99-2.75). When analyzing the combined effects of variant alleles, 54 patients and controls were identified that were homozygous for two or three of the potential risk alleles [i.e. the variants in nucleotide excision repair, XPA (-4A) and XPD 751Gln, and in homologous recombination, XRCC3-241Met]. ORs were significantly increased when all patients (OR = 2.37; CI = 1.26-4.48), patients with SCC (OR = 2.83; CI = 1.17-6.85) and with adenocarcinoma (OR = 3.05; CI = 1.49-6.23) were analyzed. Combinations of polymorphisms in genes involved in the same repair pathway (XPA + XPD or XRCC1 + APE1) affected lung cancer risk only in patients with SCC. These results indicate that lung cancer risk is only moderately increased by single DNA repair gene variants investigated but it is considerably enhanced by specific combinations of variant alleles. Analyses of additional DNA repair gene interactions in larger population-based studies are warranted for identification of high-risk subjects
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15333465
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  • 10
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; INHIBITOR ; CELL ; Germany ; LUNG ; MODEL ; MODELS ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; PATIENT ; MECHANISM ; CARCINOGENESIS ; mechanisms ; CELL-CYCLE ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; NO ; DIFFERENCE ; PROMOTER ; AGE ; WOMEN ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; smoking ; p53 ; REGION ; MDM2 ; HEALTHY ; DNA repair ; protein expression ; CELL-GROWTH ; ONCOLOGY ; RE ; SUBTYPES ; GENOTYPE ; GENDER ; PROMOTER REGION ; ENGLAND ; CIGARETTE ; interactions ; ACCELERATES TUMOR-FORMATION ; SNP309
    Abstract: The polymorphism SNP309 (rs2279744) in the promoter region of the MDM2 gene has been shown to alter protein expression and may play a role in the susceptibility to lung cancer. The MDM2 protein is a key inhibitor of p53 and several mechanisms of MDM2/p53 interactions are presently known: modulating DNA-repair, cell-cycle control, cell growth and apoptosis. We used 635 Caucasian patients diagnosed with lung cancer before 51 years of age and 1300 healthy gender and age frequency matched population Caucasian controls to investigate the association between the MDM2 SNP309 and the risk of developing early onset lung cancer. Conditional logistic models were applied to assess the genotype-phenotype association, adjusted for smoking. Compared to the GG genotype, the adjusted ORs for the TG and TT genotype were 0.9 (95% CI: 0.7-1.5) and 1.0 ( 95% CI: 0.7-1.5), respectively. Also no association was found for histological subtypes of lung cancer. The strength of this study is that within young cases the genetic component to develop lung cancer may be greater. Our results indicate that the MDM2 SNP309 is not significantly associated with lung carcinogenesis but point towards gender-specific differences
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18433484
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