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  • POLYMORPHISMS  (35)
  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; TRANSDUCTION ; PATIENT ; ACTIVATION ; MECHANISM ; IMPACT ; CARCINOGENESIS ; signal transduction ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; MUTATION ; SIGNAL-TRANSDUCTION ; cancer risk ; ONCOLOGY ; RE ; BRCA2 ; INCREASE ; analysis ; TESTS ; USA ; BINDING DOMAIN ; CANCER-RISK ; EPITHELIAL OVARIAN-CANCER ; KINASE-ANCHORING PROTEINS
    Abstract: Data from several studies have suggested that polymorphisms in A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), which are key components of signal transduction, contribute to carcinogenesis. To evaluate the impact of AKAP variants on breast cancer risk, we genotyped six nonsynonymous sing le-nucleotide polymorphisms that were predicted to be deleterious and found two (M4631, 1389G〉T and N2792S, 8375A〉G) to be associated with an allele dose-dependent increase in risk of familial breast cancer in a German population. We extended the analysis of AKAP9 M4631, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with AKAP9 N2792S, to 9523 breast cancer patients and 13770 healthy control subjects from seven independent European and Australian breast cancer studies. All statistical tests were two-sided. The collaborative analysis confirmed the association of M4631 with increased breast cancer risk. Among all breast cancer patients, the combined adjusted odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer for individuals homozygous for the rare allele TT (frequency = 0.19) compared with GG homozygotes was 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CL] = 1.08 to 1.27, P =.0003), and the OR for TT homozygotes plus GT heterozygotes compared with GG homozygotes was 1.10 (95% Cl = 1.04 to 1.17, P=.001). Among the combined subset of 2795 familial breast cancer patients, the respective ORs were 1.27 (95% Cl = 1.12 to 1.45, P =.0003) and 1.16 (95% Cl = 1.06 to 1.27, P =.001)
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18334708
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  • 2
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; CELLS ; GROWTH ; SURVIVAL ; tumor ; BLOOD ; Germany ; THERAPY ; DIAGNOSIS ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; METABOLISM ; TISSUE ; TIME ; PATIENT ; DNA ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; VARIANTS ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; STAGE ; hormone ; DESIGN ; WOMEN ; RATES ; chemotherapy ; METABOLIC-ACTIVATION ; GENOTYPES ; RECURRENCE ; US ; OUTCOMES ; ADJUVANT ; RANDOMIZED-TRIAL ; METABOLITE ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; VARIANT ; THERAPIES ; ALLELES ; ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY ; USA ; INCREASED RISK ; outcome ; STATE ; CONFIDENCE ; ENZYME-ACTIVITY ; CYTOCHROME-P450 ; CYTOCHROME-P450 2D6 ; ENDOCRINE THERAPY ; RECEIVING ADJUVANT TAMOXIFEN
    Abstract: Context The growth inhibitory effect of tamoxifen, which is used for the treatment of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, is mediated by its metabolites, 4-hydroxytamoxifen and endoxifen. The formation of active metabolites is catalyzed by the polymorphic cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) enzyme. Objective To determine whether CYP2D6 variation is associated with clinical outcomes in women receiving adjuvant tamoxifen. Design, Setting, and Patients Retrospective analysis of German and US cohorts of patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen for early stage breast cancer. The 1325 patients had diagnoses between 1986 and 2005 of stage I through III breast cancer and were mainly postmenopausal (95.4%). Last follow-up was in December 2008; inclusion criteria were hormone receptor positivity, no metastatic disease at diagnosis, adjuvant tamoxifen therapy, and no chemotherapy. DNA from tumor tissue or blood was genotyped for CYP2D6 variants associated with reduced (*10, *41) or absent (*3, *4, *5) enzyme activity. Women were classified as having an extensive (n=609), heterozygous extensive/intermediate (n=637), or poor (n=79) CYP2D6 metabolism. Main Outcome Measures Time to recurrence, event-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Results Median follow-up was 6.3 years. At 9 years of follow-up, the recurrence rates were 14.9% for extensive metabolizers, 20.9% for heterozygous extensive/intermediate metabolizers, and 29.0% for poor metabolizers, and all-cause mortality rates were 16.7%, 18.0%, and 22.8%, respectively. Compared with extensive metabolizers, there was a significantly increased risk of recurrence for heterozygous extensive/intermediate metabolizers (time to recurrence adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.90) and for poor metabolizers (time to recurrence HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.10-3.28). Compared with extensive metabolizers, those with decreased CYP2D6 activity (heterozygous extensive/intermediate and poor metabolism) had worse event-free survival (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.06-1.68) and disease-free survival (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.03-1.61), but there was no significant difference in overall survival (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.88-1.51). Conclusion Among women with breast cancer treated with tamoxifen, there was an association between CYP2D6 variation and clinical outcomes, such that the presence of 2 functional CYP2D6 alleles was associated with better clinical outcomes and the presence of nonfunctional or reduced-function alleles with worse outcomes. JAMA. 2009; 302(13): 1429-1436
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19809024
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; COHORT ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; ASSOCIATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; BRCA1 ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; EXCISION-REPAIR ; ONCOLOGY ; BRCA2 ; breast cancer risk ; NUCLEOTIDE ; ERCC4
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of a SNP in intron 1 of the ERCC4 gene (rs744154), previously reported to be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in the general population, as a breast cancer risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. METHODS: We have genotyped rs744154 in 9408 BRCA1 and 5632 BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) and assessed its association with breast cancer risk using a retrospective weighted cohort approach. RESULTS: We found no evidence of association with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 (per-allele HR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.93-1.04, P = 0.5) or BRCA2 (per-allele HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89-1.06, P = 0.5) mutation carriers. CONCLUSION: This SNP is not a significant modifier of breast cancer risk for mutation carriers, though weak associations cannot be ruled out.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19920816
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  • 4
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; CELL ; Germany ; THERAPY ; DISEASE ; HISTORY ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; MECHANISM ; FAMILY ; mechanisms ; ASSOCIATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; hormone ; NUMBER ; STRESS ; ovarian cancer ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; smoking ; ORAL-CONTRACEPTIVES ; OXIDATIVE STRESS ; body mass index ; glutathione-S-transferase ; PHASE-II ; ONCOLOGY ; ASSOCIATIONS ; LIGHT ; PHASE ; GENOTYPE ; FAMILY-HISTORY ; GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASES ; BODY-MASS ; breast cancer risk ; COLLECTION ; hormone therapy ; Metabolizing enzymes ; METABOLIZING GENES ; GSTs
    Abstract: Breast cancer is a complex disease and in recent years a number of breast cancer susceptibility genes have been identified, but the role of low penetrance susceptibility genes has not been completely resolved. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes involved in the detoxification of chemical carcinogens and environmental pollutants and play an important role in cell defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. They have been in the spot light for the investigation of a potential association with breast cancer risk but so far, sparse or even no data for a potential contribution of GSTA2, GSTM2, GSTO, and GSTZ to breast cancer risk are available. We genotyped GSTA2_448_C 〉 G (rs2180314), GSTA2_742_A 〉 C (rs6577), GSTM2_-832_T 〉 C (rs638820), GSTO1_-1242_G 〉 A (rs2164624), GSTO1_419_A 〉 C (rs4925), GSTO2_-183_A 〉 G (rs2297 235), GSTO2_342_A 〉 G (rs156697), GSTZ1_-4378_A 〉 G (rs1046428), and GSTZ1_94_G 〉 A (rs3177427) by MAL DI-TOF MS in the German GENICA breast cancer case-control collection of 1021 cases and 1015 controls and performed breast cancer risk association in general and with respect to the stratifications: menopausal status, family history of breast or ovarian cancer, use of oral contraceptives, use of hormone therapy, body mass index, and smoking as well as histopathological tumor characteristics including hormone receptor status, grade, histology, and node status. We did not observe any breast cancer risk associations and conclude that it is unlikely that glutathione S-transferases GSTA2, GSTM2, GSTO1, GSTO2, and GSTZ1 participate in breast cancer susceptibility
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19859803
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; POPULATION ; PROTEINS ; COMPLEX ; RISK-FACTORS ; POLYMORPHISMS ; VARIANTS ; ALLELES ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; CONSORTIUM ; CONFER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BRCA2 MUTATION CARRIERS
    Abstract: Triple-negative breast cancers are an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with poor survival, but there remains little known about the etiologic factors that promote its initiation and development. Commonly inherited breast cancer risk factors identified through genome-wide association studies display heterogeneity of effect among breast cancer subtypes as defined by the status of estrogen and progesterone receptors. In the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC), 22 common breast cancer susceptibility variants were investigated in 2,980 Caucasian women with triple-negative breast cancer and 4,978 healthy controls. We identified six single-nucleotide polymorphisms, including rs2046210 (ESR1), rs12662670 (ESR1), rs3803662 (TOX3), rs999737 (RAD51L1), rs8170 (19p13.1), and rs8100241 (19p13.1), significantly associated with the risk of triple-negative breast cancer. Together, our results provide convincing evidence of genetic susceptibility for triple-negative breast cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21844186
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  • 6
    Keywords: POLYMORPHISMS ; EFFICACY ; RECURRENCE ; ESTROGEN-RECEPTOR ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; BREAST-CANCER PATIENTS ; MEDICINE ; biotransformation ; GROUP 1-98 TRIAL ; ACTIVE METABOLITE
    Abstract: The International Tamoxifen Pharmacogenomics Consortium was established to address the controversy regarding cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) status and clinical outcomes in tamoxifen therapy. We performed a meta-analysis on data from 4,973 tamoxifen-treated patients (12 globally distributed sites). Using strict eligibility requirements (postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, receiving 20 mg/day tamoxifen for 5 years, criterion 1); CYP2D6 poor metabolizer status was associated with poorer invasive disease-free survival (IDFS: hazard ratio = 1.25; 95% confidence interval = 1.06, 1.47; P = 0.009). However, CYP2D6 status was not statistically significant when tamoxifen duration, menopausal status, and annual follow-up were not specified (criterion 2, n = 2,443; P = 0.25) or when no exclusions were applied (criterion 3, n = 4,935; P = 0.38). Although CYP2D6 is a strong predictor of IDFS using strict inclusion criteria, because the results are not robust to inclusion criteria (these were not defined a priori), prospective studies are necessary to fully establish the value of CYP2D6 genotyping in tamoxifen therapy.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24060820
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  • 7
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CELL ; Germany ; LUNG-CANCER ; DISEASE ; POPULATION ; RISK ; ENZYMES ; GENE ; transcription ; DNA ; SKIN ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; CYCLE ; FREQUENCY ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; FREQUENCIES ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; IDENTIFICATION ; WOMEN ; DNA-REPAIR ; MUTATION ; REPAIR ; smoking ; SPECTROMETRY ; LINE ; BLADDER-CANCER ; cancer risk ; REGION ; GENOTYPES ; MASS-SPECTROMETRY ; MUTATIONS ; ADDUCTS ; CARRIERS ; case-control studies ; CANCER-RESEARCH ; GERM-LINE ; CYCLE CONTROL ; EXCISION-REPAIR ; DNA-REPAIR GENES ; SKIN-CANCER ; MASSES ; POTENT ; case control study ; case-control study ; VARIANT ; CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; LYS751GLN POLYMORPHISM ; XPD ; XPD POLYMORPHISMS
    Abstract: The polygenic concept of breast cancer susceptibility calls for the identification of genetic variants that contribute to breast cancer risk. Reduced DNA repair proficiencies in women with breast cancer pointed to a possible role of DNA repair enzymes in the risk to develop the disease. The nucleotide excision repair enzyme encoded by the excision repair cross-complementing group 2 gene ERCC2 (formerly XPD) known to cause skin cancer by germ line mutations has multiple regulatory cellular functions, including nucleotide excision repair, basal transcription, cell cycle control, and apoptosis. ERCC2 polymorphisms ERCC2_6540_G〉A (Asp(312)Asn) and ERCC2_18880_A〉C (Lys(751)Gln) within the coding region of this evolutionarily highly conserved gene have been of functional relevance and therefore are potential candidates to confer breast cancer susceptibility. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we analyzed genotype frequencies in constitutional DNA of study participants of a German case-control study that included 688 cases of incident breast cancer and 724 population-based, age-matched controls. We identified ERCC2_6540_GG (Asp(312)Asp) as an at-risk genotype [odds ratio (OR), 2.06; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.39-3.07]. The ERCC2_6540_GG-associated breast cancer risk was even higher in women who were also carriers of the ERCC2_18880_CC (Gln(751)Gln) genotype (OR, 3.69; 95% CI, 1.76-7.74). We identified ERCC2_6540_G/ERCC2_18880_C (Asp(312)/Gln(751)) as the most potent risk-conferring haplotype (OR, 3.49; 95% CI, 2.30-5.28). To our knowledge, this is the first study assigning breast cancer risk to both the ERCC2 genotype encoding Asp(312)Asp and the haplotype encoding Asp(312)/Gln(751)
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15598761
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; COMMON ; DISEASE ; RISK ; RISKS ; GENE ; GENES ; primary ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; STAGE ; PATTERNS ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; SNP ; DATABASE ; Jun ; POPULATIONS ; familial risk ; BRCA2 MUTATIONS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY GENE ; SINGLE ; AGGREGATION ; VARIANT ; ALLELE ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; SNPs ; CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; ALLELES ; LEVEL ; familial aggregation ; single-nucleotide ; UNIT ; ENGLAND ; LOCI ; CHEK2-ASTERISK-1100DELC ; breast cancer susceptibility ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; association study ; GENETIC-SUSCEPTIBILITY ; GROWTH-FACTOR RECEPTOR-2
    Abstract: Breast cancer exhibits familial aggregation, consistent with variation in genetic susceptibility to the disease. Known susceptibility genes account for less than 25% of the familial risk of breast cancer, and the residual genetic variance is likely to be due to variants conferring more moderate risks. To identify further susceptibility alleles, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study in 4,398 breast cancer cases and 4,316 controls, followed by a third stage in which 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for confirmation in 21,860 cases and 22,578 controls from 22 studies. We used 227,876 SNPs that were estimated to correlate with 77% of known common SNPs in Europeans at r(2) 〉 0.5. SNPs in five novel independent loci exhibited strong and consistent evidence of association with breast cancer (P 〈 10(-7)). Four of these contain plausible causative genes (FGFR2, TNRC9, MAP3K1 and LSP1). At the second stage, 1,792 SNPs were significant at the P 〈 0.05 level compared with an estimated 1,343 that would be expected by chance, indicating that many additional common susceptibility alleles may be identifiable by this approach
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17529967
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; NEW-YORK ; RISK ; RISKS ; GENE ; GENOME ; METABOLISM ; DNA ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; IN-SITU ; DECREASE ; ovarian cancer ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; WOMEN ; MUTATION ; etiology ; DNA methylation ; cancer risk ; COLON-CANCER ; MULTIVARIATE ; POLYMERASE-CHAIN-REACTION ; CARRIERS ; SERIES ; CHAIN-REACTION ; GASTRIC-CANCER ; METHYLATION ; BRCA2 MUTATIONS ; CHAIN ; ONCOLOGY ; REGRESSION ; RE ; polymerase chain reaction ; MUTATION CARRIERS ; METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE ; MTHFR ; ENZYME ; analysis ; USA ; C677T POLYMORPHISM ; DIETARY-FOLATE INTAKE ; HAPLOTYPE RECONSTRUCTION ; INCREASED RISK ; odds ratio ; VARIABLES ; CANCER-RISK ; FRAGMENT ; OVARIAN ; FUNCTIONAL POLYMORPHISM ; hereditary breast/ovarian cancer ; LOGISTIC-REGRESSION ; DNA-METHYLATION ; BRCA1 carriers ; risk modifier ; GENOMIC DNA HYPOMETHYLATION ; MTHFR POLYMORPHISMS ; Polish population
    Abstract: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR), a key regulatory enzyme in the metabolism of folate, is suspected to play a role in the etiology of cancer, via its effects on DNA methylation and nucleotide synthesis. In this study we have investigated the effect of two functional polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene, MTHFR_ 677_ C 〉 T and MTHFR_ 1298_ A 〉 C, on breast and ovarian cancer risk in PolishBRCA1 mutation carriers. The study included 319 breast cancer cases, 146 ovarian cancer cases and 290 controls unaffected by breast and ovarian cancer, in situ breast cancer or any other kind of cancer. Genotyping analysis was performed using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression taking into account a series of confounding variables that potentially could have biased any association. The results revealed that the MTHFR _ 677_ C 〉 T change was associated with an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer. The MTHFR_ 1298_ A 〉 C polymorphism was only associated with a decrease in breast cancer risk. Together, it appears that functional polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene modify the risk of breast and may potentially alter the risk of ovarian cancer in women with an inherited predisposition
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17063264
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; RISK ; GENE ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; transcription ; DNA ; REDUCTION ; CARCINOGENESIS ; GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS ; BINDING ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; NO ; PATTERNS ; PROMOTER ; WOMEN ; inactivation ; cancer risk ; genetic polymorphism ; METHYLATION ; German population ; ONCOLOGY ; RE ; PATTERN ; VARIANT ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; SNPs ; ARRAY ; CATECHOL-O-METHYLTRANSFERASE ; SUBSTRATE ; ENZYME ; analysis ; FUNCTIONAL GENOMIC ANALYSIS ; HAPLOTYPE ; USA ; PREMENOPAUSAL ; cancer research ; CANCER-RISK ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; ESTROGENS ; NUCLEOTIDE ; COMT ; MENOPAUSAL STATUS
    Abstract: Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT)-catalyzed methylation of catecholestrogens has been proposed to play a protective role in estrogen-induced genotoxic carcinogenesis. We have taken a comprehensive approach to test the hypothesis that genetic variation in COMT might influence breast cancer risk. Fifteen COMT single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected on the basis of in-depth resequencing of the COMT gene were genotyped in 1,482 DNA samples from a Mayo Clinic breast cancer case control study. Two common SNPs in the distal promoter for membrane-bound (MB) COMT, rs2020917 and rs737865, were associated with breast cancer risk reduction in premenopausal women in the Mayo Clinic study, with allele-specific odds ratios (OR) of 0.70 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.52-0.95] and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.51-0.92), respectively. These two SNPs were then subjected to functional genomic analysis and were genotyped in an additional 3,683 DNA samples from two independent case control studies (GENICA and GESBC). Functional genomic experiments showed that these SNPs could up-regulate transcription and that they altered DNA-protein binding patterns. Furthermore, substrate kinetic and exon array analyses suggested a role for MB-COMT in catecholestrogen inactivation. The GENICA results were similar to the Mayo case control observations, with ORs of 0.85 (95% CI, 0.72-1.00) and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.721.01) for the two SN-Ps. No significant effect was observed in the GESBC study. These studies showed that two SNPs in the COMT distal promoter were associated with breast cancer risk reduction in two of three case control studies, compatible with the results of functional genomic experiments, suggesting a role for MB-COMT in breast cancer risk
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18632656
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