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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; EXPOSURE ; POPULATION ; RISK ; MECHANISM ; REDUCTION ; RISK-FACTORS ; CARCINOGENESIS ; mechanisms ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; HEALTH ; NUMBER ; AGE ; WOMEN ; risk factors ; REQUIRES ; RISK FACTOR ; ORAL-CONTRACEPTIVES ; EPIC ; nutrition ; ENDOMETRIAL CANCER ; menopause ; ONCOLOGY ; LIFE ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; ESTROGEN ; PREGNANCY ; BIRTH ; parity ; prospective ; menarche ; VARIABLES ; CANCER-RISK ; OVARIAN ; CORPUS ; oral contraceptive
    Abstract: Endometrial cancer risk has been associated with reproductive factors (age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, age at first and last birth, time since last birth and use of oral contraceptives (OCs)]. However, these factors are closely interrelated and whether they act independently still requires clarification. We conducted a study to examine the association of menstrual and reproductive variables with the risk of endometrial cancer among the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Among the 302,618 women eligible for the study, 1,017 incident endometrial cancer cases were identified. A reduction in endometrial cancer risk was observed in women with late menarche, early menopause, past OC use, high parity and a shorter time since last full-term pregnancy (FTP). No association was observed for duration of breast feeding after adjustment for number of FTP or for abortion (spontaneous or induced). After mutual adjustment, late age at menarche, early age at menopause and duration of OC use showed similar risk reductions of 7-8% per year of menstrual life, whereas the decreased risk associated with cumulative duration of FTPs was stronger (22% per year). In conclusion, our findings confirmed a reduction in risk of endometrial cancer with factors associated with a lower cumulative exposure to estrogen and/or higher exposure to progesterone, such as increasing number of FTPs and shorter menstrual lifespan and, therefore, support an important role of hormonal mechanisms in endometrial carcinogenesis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19924816
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; THERAPY ; cohort studies ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; breast cancer ; DECREASE ; WOMEN ; NETHERLANDS ; UNITED-STATES ; REGIMENS ; menopause ; METAANALYSIS ; ESTROGEN PLUS PROGESTIN ; HEALTHY POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; REPLACEMENT THERAPY ; HRT USE ; ESTROGENS ; DANISH COHORT ; dosage ; HRT ; progestins
    Abstract: Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is characterized by use of different constituents, regimens and routes of administration. We investigated the association between the use of different types of MHT and breast cancer risk in the EPIC cohort study. The analysis is based on data from 133,744 postmenopausal women. Approximately 133,744 postmenopausal women contributed to this analysis. Information on MHT was derived from country-specific self-administered questionnaires with a single baseline assessment. Incident breast cancers were identified through population cancer registries or by active follow-up (mean: 8.6 yr). Overall relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were derived from country-specific Cox proportional hazard models estimates. A total of 4312 primary breast cancers were diagnosed during 1,153,747 person-years of follow-up. Compared with MHT never users, breast cancer risk was higher among current users of estrogen only (RR: 1.42, 95% CI 1.23-1.64) and higher still among current users of combined MHT (RR: 1.77, 95% CI 1.40-2.24; p = 0.02 for combined vs. estrogen-only). Continuous combined regimens conferred a 43% (95% CI: 19-72%) greater risk compared with sequential regimens. There was no significant difference between progesterone and testosterone derivatives in sequential regimens. There was no significant variation in risk linked to the estrogenic component of MHT, neither for oral vs. cutaneous administration nor for estradiol compounds vs. conjugated equine estrogens. Estrogen-only and combined MHT uses were associated with increased breast cancer risk. Continuous combined preparations were associated with the highest risk. Further studies are needed to disentangle the effects of the regimen and the progestin component
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20232395
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