Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • PREVALENCE  (5)
  • 1
    Keywords: Germany ; THERAPY ; COHORT ; MORTALITY ; GENDER DIFFERENCES ; PATTERNS ; HEALTH ; AGE ; WOMEN ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; MEN ; smoking ; UNITED-STATES ; TOBACCO ; SERIES ; PREVALENCE ; cigarette smoking ; TRENDS ; HABITS ; INITIATION ; RE ; INCREASE ; HEALTH-SURVEY ; duration ; BIRTH ; SPAIN ; cohort analysis ; HEALTH SURVEY ; smoking cessation ; smoking initiation
    Abstract: This study examines temporal differences in cigarette smoking initiation and cessation among male and female birth cohorts of 1926-1970 born in Germany. Based on the German Federal Health Survey 1998 the sample is divided into a series of 5-year sex-birth cohorts, beginning with those born between 1926 and 1930 and extending to those born between 1966 and 1970. The final data file consists of a sample of 5110 people. Ever-smoking prevalence among men varies from 60 to 70% between the birth cohorts, while in women born 1926-1930 ever-smoking increases from 20 to about 50% in those born 1966-1970. A reduction of the median age at starting smoking also takes place between the cohorts. With 8.5 years this decrease is more incisive among women, compared with a drop of 2 years among men. Regarding cessation patterns the analysis shows a Shift towards a shorter duration of smoking with succeeding birth cohorts, again this shift is More incisive in women. But even in the youngest cohort still more than 50% of ever-smokers smoke regularly for more than 25 years. In Germany tobacco-control activities are required in order to take antismoking actions that especially prevent youth from starting to smoke and that support smokers in quitting
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16175053
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Keywords: Germany ; LUNG-CANCER ; CANCER MORTALITY ; COHORT ; DEATH ; EXPOSURE ; POPULATION ; DIFFERENTIATION ; TIME ; CONTRAST ; FIELD ; prevention ; HEALTH ; DIFFERENCE ; AGE ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; smoking ; TOBACCO ; CHILDREN ; PREVALENCE ; CONSUMPTION ; SMOKERS ; INEQUALITIES ; birth cohorts ; LEISURE-TIME ; IMPLEMENTATION ; ADULT ; environmental tobacco smoke ; DETERMINANTS ; TOBACCO-SMOKE ; HIGH PREVALENCE ; intensity ; PREGNANCY ; BIRTH ; COSTS ; ADOLESCENTS ; German ; nonsmokers ; CONSEQUENCES ; GENDER-DIFFERENCES ; DEATHS ; youth adults
    Abstract: In consequence of the health hazards of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and the high prevalence in the German population there are more than 100,000 deaths annually in Germany. Still more than half of the German population ever starts smoking and currently about a third of the adult population and a fifth of the adolescents are smokers at present. Additionally about 55 percent of all non-smokers between the age of 18 and 79 are often exposed to ETS at home, at work or in their leisure time. A differentiation of smoking prevalence and of exposure to ETS concerning socio-economic determinants shows that social differences have grown with successive birth cohorts. Thus, significant social inequalities can be observed today. In contrast to this, gender differences are becoming increasingly irrelevant, particularly in smoking prevalence. Tobacco consumption and ETS therefore has become one high-priority field of action of health and prevention politics in Germany, which manifests in an improved tobacco control policy. International achievements in the implementation of a comprehensive tobacco control policy show however, that in Germany further efforts are needed to reduce smoking prevalence significantly
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Keywords: Germany ; COHORT ; HISTORY ; PATTERNS ; AGE ; WOMEN ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; MEN ; smoking ; EVOLUTION ; TOBACCO ; PREVALENCE ; TRENDS ; education ; INITIATION ; DIFFUSION ; RE ; INCREASE ; GENDER ; PARTICIPANTS ; cohort analysis ; CESSATION ; health inequalities ; SES ; smoking uptake
    Abstract: Aims To investigate the evolution of the relationship between education and smoking behaviour (ever-smoking and age of initiation) among German birth cohorts of 1921-70. Participants A total of 5297 respondents to the German Federal Health Survey of 1998 were divided into 10-year sex-birth-education cohorts. Measurements Self-reported smoking histories (ever-smoking and the age of starting smoking). Findings There was an inversion of the educational gradient around the birth cohorts of 1931-40 for men and 1941-50 for women. For men, the educational cross-over in smoking was due to a stronger decrease of the ever-smoking prevalence of the highly educated compared to the least educated. In women it was due to a stronger increase in ever-smoking prevalence among the least educated compared to the highly educated. This educational cross-over effect was also be detected for the average age of starting smoking, and involved the same cohorts. Additionally, in the youngest birth cohorts the differences between the least and highest educated of each gender were greater than the differences between the genders. Conclusions The educational differences in smoking prevalence are stable in men but in women they are widening. Hence, socio-economic inequalities in health due to smoking will rise in women in the next decades, while they will stabilize in men
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16771897
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Keywords: PREVALENCE ; MANAGEMENT ; GLYCEMIC CONTROL ; MELLITUS ; REGRESSION ; METAANALYSIS ; CARDIOVASCULAR RISK ; QUALITY IMPROVEMENT STRATEGIES ; IMPROVING PRIMARY-CARE ; CHRONIC ILLNESS
    Abstract: Objectives: This randomized controlled trial investigated whether a patient-centered supportive counseling intervention comprising monthly telephone-based counseling sessions by practice nurses over 12 months improved diabetes-related medical and psycho-social outcomes above usual care in type 2 diabetes patients with poor glycemic control at baseline (HbA(1c) 〉7.5%) in a primary care setting. Research Design: Patients were individually randomized into intervention (n = 103) and usual care group (n = 101). The primary outcome was change in HbA(1c)-concentration after 12 and 18 months. Secondary outcomes were lipid levels, blood pressure, health-related quality of life and symptoms of depression. Follow-up-measurements were carried out after 6, 12 and 18 months to assess potential immediate and maintained effects of the intervention. For the multivariate analysis, hierarchical linear models were computed for each outcome to assess within-group changes in outcomes over time and between-group differences in patterns of change. Results: HbA(1c) (in %) decreased significantly from baseline to 12-month follow-up measurement both in the intervention (-0.44) and the usual care group (-0.51), but there was no significant between-group intervention effect. Significant improvements in the intervention group along with significant between-group differences were seen for health-related quality of life and, transiently, for systolic blood pressure and depression. Conclusions: Although we found no beneficial effect of the supportive telephone counseling in terms of a reduction of HbA1c above usual care, our findings suggest some beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, quality of life and depression. Continuous efforts might be needed to sustain improvements in patient outcomes.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24205043
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Keywords: DISEASE ; RISK-FACTORS ; DEMENTIA ; PREVALENCE ; DECLINE ; METAANALYSIS ; IMPAIRMENT ; OLDER-ADULTS ; MIDDLE-AGE ; WHITEHALL-II
    Abstract: To examine potential associations of the history of lifetime smoking and smoking cessation with cognitive function in the elderly. In a population-based cohort study of older adults in Saarland, Germany, a detailed lifetime history of smoking was obtained using standardised questionnaires. Cognitive function was assessed with a validated telephone-based instrument (COGTEL) at the five-year follow-up in a subsample of n = 1,697 participants with a baseline age 〉 65 years. Multiple linear regression models were employed to predict cognitive performance, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Ever-smokers with a higher cumulative dose of smoking in pack-years scored lower in the cognitive assessment than never-smokers, with the association being more pronounced in current smokers than in former smokers. In fully adjusted models, current smokers with 21-40 pack-years scored 4.06 points lower (95 % CI -7.18 to -0.94) than never-smokers. In former smokers, a longer time since smoking cessation was associated with higher scores in the cognitive test with reference to current smokers, even after adjustment for pack-years. Former smokers who had quit for more than 30 years scored 4.23 points higher (95 % CI 1.75 to 6.71) than current smokers. Dose-response-relationships of cognitive function with cumulative dose of smoking as well as with time since smoking cessation were substantiated by restricted cubic splines regression. Our results support suggestions that smokers are at an increased risk for cognitive impairment in older age; that the risk increases with duration and intensity of smoking, and subsides with time after smoking cessation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23990211
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...