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  • 1
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; SURVIVAL ; tumor ; KINASE ; DIAGNOSIS ; SUPPORT ; DISEASE ; RISK ; DISTINCT ; PROTEIN ; TUMORS ; PROTEIN-KINASE ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; prevention ; DIFFERENCE ; genetics ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; cancer risk ; PROGNOSTIC-FACTORS ; PROGNOSTIC FACTORS ; PROGNOSTIC FACTOR ; heredity ; KERATINOCYTE GROWTH-FACTOR ; HETEROGENEITY ; fibroblast ; SNPs ; overall survival ; GRADE ; PROGNOSTIC-FACTOR ; METAANALYSIS ; ESTROGEN ; USA ; CANCER-RISK ; comparison ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; LOW-GRADE ; FGFR2 ; NUCLEOTIDE ; genetic variants
    Abstract: A three-stage genome-wide association study recently identified single nucleotide polymorphisms ( SNPs) in five loci ( fibroblast growth receptor 2 ( FGFR2), trinucleotide repeat containing 9 ( TNRC9), mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 K1 (MAP3K1), 8q24, and lymphocyte- specific protein 1 ( LSP1)) associated with breast cancer risk. We investigated whether the associations between these SNPs and breast cancer risk varied by clinically important tumor characteristics in up to 23,039 invasive breast cancer cases and 26,273 controls from 20 studies. We also evaluated their influence on overall survival in 13,527 cases from 13 studies. All participants were of European or Asian origin. rs2981582 in FGFR2 was more strongly related to ER- positive ( per- allele OR ( 95%CI) = 1.31 (1.27-1.36)) than ER- negative (1.08 (1.03- 1.14)) disease ( P for heterogeneity = 10-(13)). This SNP was also more strongly related to PR-positive, low grade and node positive tumors (P = 10(-5), 10(-8), 0.013, respectively). The association for rs13281615 in 8q24 was stronger for ER- positive, PR-positive, and low grade tumors (P = 0.001, 0.011 and 10(-4), respectively). The differences in the associations between SNPs in FGFR2 and 8q24 and risk by ER and grade remained significant after permutation adjustment for multiple comparisons and after adjustment for other tumor characteristics. Three SNPs ( rs2981582, rs3803662, and rs889312) showed weak but significant associations with ER- negative disease, the strongest association being for rs3803662 in TNRC9 ( 1.14 ( 1.09-1.21)). rs13281615 in 8q24 was associated with an improvement in survival after diagnosis ( per- allele HR = 0.90 (0.83-0.97). The association was attenuated and non-significant after adjusting for known prognostic factors. Our findings show that common genetic variants influence the pathological subtype of breast cancer and provide further support for the hypothesis that ER- positive and ER- negative disease are biologically distinct. Understanding the etiologic heterogeneity of breast cancer may ultimately result in improvements in prevention, early detection, and treatment
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18437204
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELL ; Germany ; LUNG ; neoplasms ; PROSTATE ; COMMON ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; DISEASE ; HISTORY ; incidence ; NEW-YORK ; RISK ; RISKS ; SITE ; SITES ; renal ; SKIN ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST ; BREAST-CANCER ; AGE ; genetics ; etiology ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; leukemia ; SWEDEN ; DATABASE ; SIR ; familial risk ; NATIONWIDE ; ATTRIBUTABLE RISKS ; FAMILY-CANCER DATABASE ; NONPOLYPOSIS COLORECTAL-CANCER ; MULTIPLE-MYELOMA ; GUIDELINES ; familial cancers,heritable cancer,clinical counseling,familial risk ; GENOMIC MEDICINE ; HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA ; TESTICULAR CANCER
    Abstract: Familial risks for cancer are important for clinical counseling and understanding cancer etiology. Medically verified data on familial risks have not been available for all types of cancer. The nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database includes all Swedes born in 1932 and later (0-to 68-year-old offspring) with their parents, totaling over 10.2 million individuals. Cancer cases were retrieved from the Swedish Cancer Registry up to year 2000. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and 95% confidence limits (Cl) were calculated for age-specific familial risk in offspring by an exact proband status. The familial risks for offspring cancer were increased at 24/25 sites from concordant cancer in only the parent, at 20/21 sites from a sibling proband and at 12/12 sites from a parent and sibling proband. The highest SIRs by parent were for Hodgkin's disease (4.88) and testicular (4.26), non-medullary thyroid (3.26), ovarian (3.15) and esophageal (3.14) cancer and for multiple myeloma (3.33). When a sibling was affected, even prostate, renal, squamous cell skin, endocrine, gastric and lung cancer and leukemia showed SIRs in excess of 3.00. The highest cumulative risks were found for familial breast (5.5%) and prostate (4.2%) cancers. We identified reliable familial risks for 24 common neoplasms, most of which lack guidelines for clinical counseling or action level. If, for example, a familial SIR of 2.2 would be use as an action level, counseling would be needed for most cancers at some diagnostic age groups. The present data provide the basis for clinical counseling. (C) 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14618624
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  • 3
    Keywords: carcinoma ; POPULATION ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; MARKER ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; METAANALYSIS ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; PLATFORM
    Abstract: Common variants in the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox B (HNF1B) gene are associated with the risk of Type II diabetes and multiple cancers. Evidence to date indicates that cancer risk may be mediated via genetic or epigenetic effects on HNF1B gene expression. We previously found single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the HNF1B locus to be associated with endometrial cancer, and now report extensive fine-mapping and in silico and laboratory analyses of this locus. Analysis of 1184 genotyped and imputed SNPs in 6608 Caucasian cases and 37 925 controls, and 895 Asian cases and 1968 controls, revealed the best signal of association for SNP rs11263763 (P = 8.4 x 10(-14), odds ratio = 0.86, 95% confidence interval = 0.82-0.89), located within HNF1B intron 1. Haplotype analysis and conditional analyses provide no evidence of further independent endometrial cancer risk variants at this locus. SNP rs11263763 genotype was associated with HNF1B mRNA expression but not with HNF1B methylation in endometrial tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Genetic analyses prioritized rs11263763 and four other SNPs in high-to-moderate linkage disequilibrium as the most likely causal SNPs. Three of these SNPs map to the extended HNF1B promoter based on chromatin marks extending from the minimal promoter region. Reporter assays demonstrated that this extended region reduces activity in combination with the minimal HNF1B promoter, and that the minor alleles of rs11263763 or rs8064454 are associated with decreased HNF1B promoter activity. Our findings provide evidence for a single signal associated with endometrial cancer risk at the HNF1B locus, and that risk is likely mediated via altered HNF1B gene expression.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25378557
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  • 4
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; GENE ; BREAST-CANCER ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; telomere length ; COMMON VARIANT ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; FUNCTIONAL VARIATION
    Abstract: Several studies have reported associations between multiple cancer types and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 5p15, which harbours TERT and CLPTM1L, but no such association has been reported with endometrial cancer. To evaluate the role of genetic variants at the TERT-CLPTM1L region in endometrial cancer risk, we carried out comprehensive fine-mapping analyses of genotyped and imputed SNPs using a custom Illumina iSelect array which includes dense SNP coverage of this region. We examined 396 SNPs (113 genotyped, 283 imputed) in 4,401 endometrial cancer cases and 28,758 controls. Single-SNP and forward/backward logistic regression models suggested evidence for three variants independently associated with endometrial cancer risk (P = 4.9 x 10(-6) to P = 7.7 x 10(-5)). Only one falls into a haplotype previously associated with other cancer types (rs7705526, in TERT intron 1), and this SNP has been shown to alter TERT promoter activity. One of the novel associations (rs13174814) maps to a second region in the TERT promoter and the other (rs62329728) is in the promoter region of CLPTM1L; neither are correlated with previously reported cancer-associated SNPs. Using TCGA RNASeq data, we found significantly increased expression of both TERT and CLPTM1L in endometrial cancer tissue compared with normal tissue (TERT P = 1.5 x 10(-18), CLPTM1L P = 1.5 x 10(-19)). Our study thus reports a novel endometrial cancer risk locus and expands the spectrum of cancer types associated with genetic variation at 5p15, further highlighting the importance of this region for cancer susceptibility.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25487306
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; PROSTATE ; DISEASE ; HISTORY ; incidence ; NEW-YORK ; POPULATION ; RISK ; RISKS ; SITE ; SITES ; GENE ; GENES ; PATIENT ; kidney ; FAMILY ; MEMBER ; MEMBERS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST-CANCER ; etiology ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; SWEDEN ; DATABASE ; SIR ; familial risk ; NATIONWIDE ; FAMILY-CANCER DATABASE ; GUIDELINES ; GENOMIC MEDICINE ; TESTICULAR CANCER ; CELL TUMORS ; familial cancers,heritable cancer,clinical counseling,urology ; LINDAU-DISEASE
    Abstract: Familial risks for cancer are important for clinical counseling and understanding cancer etiology. The nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database includes all Swedes born in 1932 and later (0 to 68-year-old offspring) with their parents, totaling over 10.2 million individuals. Urological cancer cases were retrieved from the Swedish Cancer Registry up to year 2000. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and 95% confidence limits (CI) were calculated for age-specific familial risk in offspring by an exact proband status. The familial risks for offspring cancer were increased at all urological sites from concordant cancer in the parent and in a sibling proband. The highest SIRs by parent were for testicular and prostate cancer (4.26 and 2.45). When a sibling was affected, even kidney cancer (4.74) showed a high SIR. For kidney cancers, and also for prostate and testicular cancers, the SIRs were higher among siblings than among offspring and parents, which may indicate the involvement of recessive effects. Family members of patients with prostate cancer or von Hippel Lindau disease can expect organized clinical counseling, but family members of patients with other urological cancers are probably not counseled. Guidelines for clinical counseling or action level should be developed for all urological cancers because of the established familial risks. Urological cancers also offer a challenge to molecular geneticists attempting to identify the susceptibility genes underlying the familial clustering
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14615900
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  • 6
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; polymorphism ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; ATM GENE ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; ESTROGEN-RECEPTOR-ALPHA ; CYTOCHROME-P450 ; CYP2B6
    Abstract: The cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) is involved in the metabolism of testosterone. Functional changes in this enzyme may influence endogenous hormone exposure, which has been associated with risk of breast cancer. To assess potential associations between two functional polymorphisms CYP2B6_516_G〉T (rs3745274) and CYP2B6_785_A〉G (rs2279343) and breast cancer risk, we established a specific matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry assay. The GENICA breast cancer case-control study showed associations between the variant genotypes CYP2B6_516_TT and CYP2B6_785_GG and breast cancer risk with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.34 (p = 0.001) and 1.31 (p = 0.002), respectively. A similar effect was observed for carriers of the CYP2B6_516_T allele in a validation study including four independent studies from Germany, Sweden and USA. In a pooled analysis of all five studies involving 4,638 breast cancer cases and 3,594 controls of European ancestry, carriers of the CYP2B6_516_G and the CYP2B6_785_G variant had an increased breast cancer risk with ORs of 1.10 (p = 0.027) and 1.10 (p = 0.031), respectively. We conclude that the genetic variants CYP2B6_516_G and CYP2B6_785_G (designated CYP2B6*6), which are known to decrease activity of the CYP2B6 enzyme, contribute to an increased breast cancer risk.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23824676
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  • 7
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; polymorphism ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; ATM GENE ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; ESTROGEN-RECEPTOR-ALPHA ; CYTOCHROME-P450 ; CYP2B6
    Abstract: The cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) is involved in the metabolism of testosterone. Functional changes in this enzyme may influence endogenous hormone exposure, which has been associated with risk of breast cancer. To assess potential associations between two functional polymorphisms CYP2B6_516_G〉T (rs3745274) and CYP2B6_785_A〉G (rs2279343) and breast cancer risk, we established a specific matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry assay. The GENICA breast cancer case-control study showed associations between the variant genotypes CYP2B6_516_TT and CYP2B6_785_GG and breast cancer risk with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.34 (p = 0.001) and 1.31 (p = 0.002), respectively. A similar effect was observed for carriers of the CYP2B6_516_T allele in a validation study including four independent studies from Germany, Sweden and USA. In a pooled analysis of all five studies involving 4,638 breast cancer cases and 3,594 controls of European ancestry, carriers of the CYP2B6_516_G and the CYP2B6_785_G variant had an increased breast cancer risk with ORs of 1.10 (p = 0.027) and 1.10 (p = 0.031), respectively. We conclude that the genetic variants CYP2B6_516_G and CYP2B6_785_G (designated CYP2B6*6), which are known to decrease activity of the CYP2B6 enzyme, contribute to an increased breast cancer risk.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23824676
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  • 8
    Keywords: LUNG-CANCER ; polymorphism ; PROGRESSION ; AMPLIFICATION ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; CELL-DIVISION ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCI ; RISK LOCI ; TACC2
    Abstract: Mitotic index is an important component of histologic grade and has an etiologic role in breast tumorigenesis. Several small candidate gene studies have reported associations between variation in mitotic genes and breast cancer risk. We measured associations between 2156 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 194 mitotic genes and breast cancer risk, overall and by histologic grade, in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) iCOGS study (n = 39 067 cases; n = 42 106 controls). SNPs in TACC2 [rs17550038: odds ratio (OR) = 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-1.33, P = 4.2 x 10(-10)) and EIF3H (rs799890: OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.11, P = 8.7 x 10(-6)) were significantly associated with risk of low-grade breast cancer. The TACC2 signal was retained (rs17550038: OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.07-1.23, P = 7.9 x 10(-5)) after adjustment for breast cancer risk SNPs in the nearby FGFR2 gene, suggesting that TACC2 is a novel, independent genome-wide significant genetic risk locus for low-grade breast cancer. While no SNPs were individually associated with high-grade disease, a pathway-level gene set analysis showed that variation across the 194 mitotic genes was associated with high-grade breast cancer risk (P = 2.1 x 10(-3)). These observations will provide insight into the contribution of mitotic defects to histological grade and the etiology of breast cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24927736
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  • 9
    Keywords: GENE-EXPRESSION ; CELL-CYCLE ; DOWN-REGULATION ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; ESTROGEN-RECEPTOR ; MAMMARY-GLAND ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; GROWTH-FACTOR RECEPTOR-2 ; MULTIPLE LOCI
    Abstract: Analysis of 4,405 variants in 89,050 European subjects from 41 case-control studies identified three independent association signals for estrogen-receptor-positive tumors at 11q13. The strongest signal maps to a transcriptional enhancer element in which the G allele of the best candidate causative variant rs554219 increases risk of breast cancer, reduces both binding of ELK4 transcription factor and luciferase activity in reporter assays, and may be associated with low cyclin D1 protein levels in tumors. Another candidate variant, rs78540526, lies in the same enhancer element. Risk association signal 2, rs75915166, creates a GATA3 binding site within a silencer element. Chromatin conformation studies demonstrate that these enhancer and silencer elements interact with each other and with their likely target gene, CCND1.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23540573
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