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  • PROTEINS  (25)
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  • 1
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; Germany ; human ; MODEL ; THERAPY ; DIAGNOSIS ; INFORMATION ; NETWORK ; TOOL ; DISEASE ; GENE ; GENES ; GENOME ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; BIOLOGY ; SEQUENCE ; FORM ; IDENTIFICATION ; HEALTH ; DATABASE ; PRODUCT ; bioinformatics ; LOCALIZATION ; WEB ; HUMAN GENES ; FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS ; PROTEOMICS ; PRODUCTS ; databases ; ANNOTATION ; RESOURCE ; PROTEIN-ANALYSIS ; FULL-LENGTH HUMAN ; HUMAN CDNAS
    Abstract: As several model genomes have been sequenced, the elucidation of protein function is the next challenge toward the understanding of biological processes in health and disease. We have generated a human ORFeome resource and established a functional genomics and proteomics analysis pipeline to address the major topics in the post-genome-sequencing era: the identification of human genes and splice forms, and the determination of protein localization, activity, and interaction. Combined with the understanding of when and where gene products are expressed in normal and diseased conditions, we create information that is essential for understanding the interplay of genes and proteins in the complex biological network. We have implemented bioinformatics tools and databases that are suitable to store, analyze, and integrate the different types of data from high-throughput experiments and to include further annotation that is based on external information. All information is presented in a Web database (http://www.dkfz.de/LIFEdb). It is exploited for the identification of disease-relevant genes and proteins for diagnosis and therapy
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15489336
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  • 2
    Keywords: brain ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; Germany ; GENE ; GENES ; GENOME ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; transcription ; TISSUE ; MECHANISM ; mechanisms ; PROMOTER ; NUMBER ; DATABASE ; LOCALIZATION ; B-CELLS ; INVOLVEMENT ; TESTIS ; representational difference analysis ; RE ; VARIANT ; genomics ; regulation ; TRANSLATION ; GENE-REGULATION ; gene regulation ; NUCLEAR-PORE COMPLEX ; OVERLAPPING READING FRAMES ; SIGNAL PEPTIDES
    Abstract: Background: Given the complexity of higher organisms, the number of genes encoded by their genomes is surprisingly small. Tissue specific regulation of expression and splicing are major factors enhancing the number of the encoded products. Commonly these mechanisms are intragenic and affect only one gene. Results: Here we provide evidence that the IL4I1 gene is specifically transcribed from the apparent promoter of the upstream NUP62 gene, and that the first two exons of NUP62 are also contained in the novel IL4I1_2 variant. While expression of IL4I1 driven from its previously described promoter is found mostly in B cells, the expression driven by the NUP62 promoter is restricted to cells in testis (Sertoli cells) and in the brain (e.g., Purkinje cells). Since NUP62 is itself ubiquitously expressed, the IL4I1_2 variant likely derives from cell type specific alternative pre-mRNA processing. Conclusion: Comparative genomics suggest that the promoter upstream of the NUP62 gene originally belonged to the IL4I1 gene and was later acquired by NUP62 via insertion of a retroposon. Since both genes are apparently essential, the promoter had to serve two genes afterwards. Expression of the IL4I1 gene from the "NUP62" promoter and the tissue specific involvement of the pre-mRNA processing machinery to regulate expression of two unrelated proteins indicate a novel mechanism of gene regulation
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16029492
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  • 3
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; proliferation ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; Germany ; INFORMATION ; screening ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; GENOME ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; gene expression ; ASSAY ; DATABASE ; bioinformatics ; INTERFACE ; PROJECT ; INTEGRATION ; FEATURES ; RE ; cell proliferation ; FULL-LENGTH HUMAN ; HUMAN CDNAS ; ASSAYS ; genomic ; NORTHERN
    Abstract: LIFEdb (http://www.LIFEdb.de) integrates data from large-scale functional genomics assays and manual cDNA annotation with bioinformatics gene expression and protein analysis. New features of LIFEdb include (i) an updated user interface with enhanced query capabilities, (ii) a configurable output table and the option to download search results in XML, (iii) the integration of data from cell-based screening assays addressing the influence of protein-overexpression on cell proliferation and (iv) the display of the relative expression ('Electronic Northern') of the genes under investigation using curated gene expression ontology information. LIFEdb enables researchers to systematically select and characterize genes and proteins of interest, and presents data and information via its user-friendly web-based interface
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16381901
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  • 4
    Keywords: CELLS ; human ; DISTINCT ; GENE ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; COMPLEX ; DOMAIN ; SEQUENCE ; SEQUENCES ; VARIANTS ; MOUSE ; IDENTIFICATION ; PATTERNS ; PROMOTERS ; HUMAN GENOME ; LOCALIZATION ; KAPPA-B ; DOMAINS ; SUBCELLULAR-LOCALIZATION ; RE ; VARIANT ; LOCUS ; EVENTS ; OPEN READING FRAMES ; function ; SPLICING VARIANTS ; transcriptome ; MAMMALIAN GENOMES ; PRE-MESSENGER-RNA
    Abstract: We report the first genome-wide identification and characterization of alternative splicing in human gene transcripts based on analysis of the full-length cDNAs. Applying both manual and computational analyses for 56 419 completely sequenced and precisely annotated full-length cDNAs selected for the H-Invitational human transcriptome annotation meetings, we identified 6877 alternative splicing genes with 18 297 different alternative splicing variants. A total of 37 670 exons were involved in these alternative splicing events. The encoded protein sequences were affected in 6005 of the 6877 genes. Notably, alternative splicing affected protein motifs in 3015 genes, subcellular localizations in 2982 genes and transmembrane domains in 1348 genes. We also identified interesting patterns of alternative splicing, in which two distinct genes seemed to be bridged, nested or having overlapping protein coding sequences (CDSs) of different reading frames (multiple CDS). In these cases, completely unrelated proteins are encoded by a single locus. Genome-wide annotations of alternative splicing, relying on full-length cDNAs, should lay firm groundwork for exploring in detail the diversification of protein function, which is mediated by the fast expanding universe of alternative splicing variants
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16914452
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  • 5
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; EXPRESSION ; INVASION ; CELL ; Germany ; KINASE ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; TYROSINE KINASE ; SYSTEM ; SYSTEMS ; GENE ; GENES ; GENOME ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; validation ; BIOLOGY ; TARGET ; REQUIRES ; PCR ; SIGNALING PATHWAY ; SIGNALING PATHWAYS ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; systems biology ; TARGETS ; OVEREXPRESSION ; real-time PCR ; protein expression ; CROSS-TALK ; CYTOTOXICITY ; signaling ; SINGLE ; ARRAY ; analysis ; EVENTS ; technique ; USA ; quantitative ; SIGNALING NETWORK ; protein arrays ; combinatorial protein knockdown ; reverse-phase protein arrays
    Abstract: The elucidation of cross-talk events between intersecting signaling pathways is one main challenge in biological research. The complexity of protein networks, composed of different pathways, requires novel strategies and techniques to reveal relevant interrelations. Here, we established a combinatorial RNAi strategy for systematic single, double, and triple knockdown, and we measured the residual mRNAs and proteins quantitatively by quantitative real-time PCR and reverse-phase protein arrays, respectively, as a prerequisite for data analysis. Our results show that the parallel knockdown of at least three different genes is feasible while keeping both untargeted silencing and cytotoxicity low. The technique was validated by investigating the interplay of tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB2 and its downstream targets Akt-1 and MEK1 in cell invasion. This experimental approach combines multiple gene knockdown with a subsequent quantitative validation of reduced protein expression and is a major advancement toward the analysis of signaling pathways in systems biology
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17420474
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; GROWTH ; INHIBITOR ; proliferation ; SURVIVAL ; tumor ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; Germany ; KINASE ; INFORMATION ; TOOL ; DISEASE ; GENE ; GENES ; GENOME ; microarray ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; transcription ; TUMORS ; RESOLUTION ; ACTIVATION ; DNA ; BIOLOGY ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; CYCLE ; ASSOCIATION ; MOUSE ; IDENTIFICATION ; PROGRESSION ; ASSAY ; microarrays ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; STRATEGIES ; DNA-REPLICATION ; REPLICATION ; signaling ; RE ; TUMORIGENICITY ; genomics ; TRANSITION ; DNA replication ; C-ELEGANS ; cell proliferation ; PROTEIN-ANALYSIS ; development ; ASSAYS ; DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED GENES ; high throughput ; HIGH-THROUGHPUT ; LONG ; PRIME ; PRINCIPLES ; REPRESSOR ; ROLES
    Abstract: Cancer transcription microarray studies commonly deliver long lists of "candidate" genes that are putatively associated with the respective disease. For many of these genes, no functional information, even less their relevance in pathologic conditions, is established as they were identified in large-scale genomics approaches. Strategies and tools are thus needed to distinguish genes and proteins with mere tumor association from those causally related to cancer. Here, we describe a functional profiling approach, where we analyzed 103 previously uncharacterized genes in cancer relevant assays that probed their effects on DNA replication (cell proliferation). The genes had previously been identified as differentially expressed in genome-wide microarray studies of tumors. Using an automated high-throughput assay with single-cell resolution, we discovered seven activators and nine repressors of DNA replication. These were further characterized for effects on extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling (G(1)-S transition) and anchorage-independent growth (tumorigenicity). One activator and one inhibitor protein of ERK1/2 activation and three repressors of anchorage-independent growth were identified. Data from tumor and functional profiling make these proteins novel prime candidates for further in-depth study of their roles in cancer development and progression. We have established a novel functional profiling strategy that links genomics to cell biology and showed its potential for discerning cancer relevant modulators of the cell cycle in the candidate lists from microarray studies
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16140941
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  • 7
    Keywords: COMBINATION ; Germany ; GENERATION ; GENOME ; microarray ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY ; BIOLOGY ; MOLECULAR-BIOLOGY ; antibodies ; antibody ; microarrays ; ARRAYS ; NUMBER ; REPRODUCIBILITY ; FUSION ; FUSION PROTEINS ; SURFACE ; MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODIES ; IMMOBILIZATION ; PROTEOMICS ; protein microarray ; PROTEIN MICROARRAYS ; FUSION PROTEIN ; SERUM ; molecular biology ; molecular ; RECOMBINANT ; ARRAY ; RESOURCE ; ANTIBODY MICROARRAYS ; CHIP ; 3D ; monoclonal antibodies ; monoclonal antibody ; ALLERGEN-SPECIFIC IGE ; DYES ; FLUORESCENT DYES
    Abstract: To process large numbers of samples in parallel is one potential of protein microarrays for research and diagnostics. However, the application of protein arrays is currently hampered by the lack of comprehensive technological knowledge about the suitability of 2-D and 3-D slide surface coatings. We have performed a systematic study to analyze how both surface types perform in combination with different fluorescent dyes to generate significant and reproducible data. In total, we analyzed more than 100 slides containing 1152 spots each. Slides were probed against different monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and recombinant fusion proteins. We found two surface coatings to be most suitable for protein and antibody (Ab) immobilization. These were further subjected to quantitative analyses by evaluating intraslide and slide-to-slide reproducibilities, and the linear range of target detection. in summary, we demonstrate that only suitable combinations of surface and fluorescent dyes allow the generation of highly reproducible data
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16267812
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  • 8
    Keywords: Germany ; CLASSIFICATION ; INFORMATION ; TOOL ; SITE ; CLONING ; GENOME ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; TIME ; SEQUENCE ; SIGNAL ; VARIANTS ; ASSAY ; DATABASE ; LOCALIZATION ; PREDICTION ; SELECTION ; REJECTION ; SEQUENCE-ANALYSIS ; HUMAN GENES ; FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS ; CDNAS ; FEATURES ; PROGRAM ; RE ; VARIANT ; assembly ; databases ; ANNOTATION ; CPG ISLANDS ; FULL-LENGTH HUMAN ; ASSAYS ; HIGH-THROUGHPUT ; TESTS ; GENOMIC DNA ; genomic ; SIGNALS ; E ; SET ; transcriptome ; POLYADENYLATION
    Abstract: Background: The German cDNA Consortium has been cloning full length cDNAs and continued with their exploitation in protein localization experiments and cellular assays. However, the efficient use of large cDNA resources requires the development of strategies that are capable of a speedy selection of truly useful cDNAs from biological and experimental noise. To this end we have developed a new high-throughput analysis tool, CAFTAN, which simplifies these efforts and thus fills the gap between large-scale cDNA collections and their systematic annotation and application in functional genomics. Results: CAFTAN is built around the mapping of cDNAs to the genome assembly, and the subsequent analysis of their genomic context. It uses sequence features like the presence and type of PolyA signals, inner and flanking repeats, the GC-content, splice site types, etc. All these features are evaluated in individual tests and classify cDNAs according to their sequence quality and likelihood to have been generated from fully processed mRNAs. Additionally, CAFTAN compares the coordinates of mapped cDNAs with the genomic coordinates of reference sets from public available resources ( e. g., VEGA, ENSEMBL). This provides detailed information about overlapping exons and the structural classification of cDNAs with respect to the reference set of splice variants. The evaluation of CAFTAN showed that is able to correctly classify more than 85% of 5950 selected "known protein-coding" VEGA cDNAs as high quality multi-or single-exon. It identified as good 80.6% of the single exon cDNAs and 85% of the multiple exon cDNAs. The program is written in Perl and in a modular way, allowing the adoption of this strategy to other tasks like EST-annotation, or to extend it by adding new classification rules and new organism databases as they become available. We think that it is a very useful program for the annotation and research of unfinished genomes. Conclusion: CAFTAN is a high-throughput sequence analysis tool, which performs a fast and reliable quality prediction of cDNAs. Several thousands of cDNAs can be analyzed in a short time, giving the curator/scientist a first quick overview about the quality and the already existing annotation of a set of cDNAs. It supports the rejection of low quality cDNAs and helps in the selection of likely novel splice variants, and/or completely novel transcripts for new experiments
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17064411
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  • 9
    Keywords: CELLS ; CELL ; Germany ; PATHWAYS ; QUANTIFICATION ; SYSTEM ; SYSTEMS ; microarray ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; SAMPLES ; DRUG ; BIOLOGY ; SIGNAL ; ASSAY ; microarrays ; EFFICIENT ; ELECTROPHORESIS ; BIOPSY ; PROTEOMICS ; signaling ; RECOMBINANT ; RE ; CAPACITY ; ARRAY ; GELS ; analysis ; methods ; BIOPSIES ; signaling networks ; protein arrays ; protein quantification ; reverse phase protein microarray
    Abstract: The advancement of efficient technologies to comply with the needs of systems biology and drug discovery has so far not received adequate attention. A substantial bottleneck for the time-resolved quantitative description of signaling networks is the limited throughput and the inadequate sensitivity of currently established methods. Here, we present an improved protein microarray-based approach towards the sensitive detection of proteins in the fg-range which is based on signal detection in the near-infrared range. The high sensitivity of the assay permits the specific quantification of proteins derived from as little as only 20 000 cells with an error rate of only 5%. The capacity is limited to the analysis of up to 500 different samples per microarray. Protein abundance is determined qualitatively, and quantitatively, if recombinant protein is available. This novel approach was called IPAQ (infrared-based protein arrays with quantitative readout). IPAQ offers a highly sensitive experimental approach superior to the established standard protein quantification technologies, and is suitable for quantitative proteomics. Employing the IPAQ approach, a detailed analysis of activated signaling networks in biopsy samples and of crosstalk between signaling modules as required in drug discovery strategies can easily be performed
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17309101
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; CANCER CELLS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; INVASION ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; CLASSIFICATION ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENOME ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; TUMORS ; TIME ; kidney ; primary ; FLOW ; BIOLOGY ; CELL-CYCLE ; MOLECULAR-BIOLOGY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; PROGRESSION ; PATTERNS ; MEMBRANE ; METASTASIS ; genetics ; metastases ; CANCER-CELLS ; ONCOGENE ; heredity ; molecular biology ; molecular ; E-cadherin ; ONCOLOGY ; RE ; INCREASE ; LEVEL ; LOSSES ; REDUCED EXPRESSION ; ENGLAND ; INCREASES ; detachment ; cell junctions ; initial cell-cell contact
    Abstract: Vacuole membrane protein 1 (Vmp1) is described as a cancer-relevant cell cycle modulator, but the function of this protein and its mode of action in tumor progression are still unknown. In this study, we show that the VMP1 mRNA level is significantly reduced in kidney cancer metastases as compared to primary tumors. Further, VMP1 expression is also decreased in the invasive breast cancer cell lines HCC1954 and MDA-MB-231 as compared to the non-invasive cell lines MCF-12A, T-47D and MCF-7. We show for the first time that Vmp1 is a plasma membrane protein and an essential component of initial cell-cell contacts and tight junction formation. It interacts with the tight junction protein Zonula Occludens-1 and colocalizes in spots between neighboring HEK293 cells. Downregulation of VMP1 by RNAi results in loss of cell adherence, and increases the invasion capacity of the non-invasive kidney cancer cell line Caki-2. In conclusion, our findings establish Vmp1 to be a novel cell-cell adhesion protein and that its expression level determines the invasion and metastatic potential of cancer cells
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17724469
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