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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-01-29
    Description: Cellular reprogramming of somatic cells to patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) enables in vitro modelling of human genetic disorders for pathogenic investigations and therapeutic screens. However, using iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) to model an adult-onset heart disease remains challenging owing to the uncertainty regarding the ability of relatively immature iPSC-CMs to fully recapitulate adult disease phenotypes. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) is an inherited heart disease characterized by pathological fatty infiltration and cardiomyocyte loss predominantly in the right ventricle, which is associated with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Over 50% of affected individuals have desmosome gene mutations, most commonly in PKP2, encoding plakophilin-2 (ref. 9). The median age at presentation of ARVD/C is 26 years. We used previously published methods to generate iPSC lines from fibroblasts of two patients with ARVD/C and PKP2 mutations. Mutant PKP2 iPSC-CMs demonstrate abnormal plakoglobin nuclear translocation and decreased beta-catenin activity in cardiogenic conditions; yet, these abnormal features are insufficient to reproduce the pathological phenotypes of ARVD/C in standard cardiogenic conditions. Here we show that induction of adult-like metabolic energetics from an embryonic/glycolytic state and abnormal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) activation underlie the pathogenesis of ARVD/C. By co-activating normal PPAR-alpha-dependent metabolism and abnormal PPAR-gamma pathway in beating embryoid bodies (EBs) with defined media, we established an efficient ARVD/C in vitro model within 2 months. This model manifests exaggerated lipogenesis and apoptosis in mutant PKP2 iPSC-CMs. iPSC-CMs with a homozygous PKP2 mutation also had calcium-handling deficits. Our study is the first to demonstrate that induction of adult-like metabolism has a critical role in establishing an adult-onset disease model using patient-specific iPSCs. Using this model, we revealed crucial pathogenic insights that metabolic derangement in adult-like metabolic milieu underlies ARVD/C pathologies, enabling us to propose novel disease-modifying therapeutic strategies.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3753229/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3753229/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Changsung -- Wong, Johnson -- Wen, Jianyan -- Wang, Shirong -- Wang, Cheng -- Spiering, Sean -- Kan, Natalia G -- Forcales, Sonia -- Puri, Pier Lorenzo -- Leone, Teresa C -- Marine, Joseph E -- Calkins, Hugh -- Kelly, Daniel P -- Judge, Daniel P -- Chen, Huei-Sheng Vincent -- R01 AR052779/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR056712/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL058493/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL101189/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL105194/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- TCR05004/Telethon/Italy -- England -- Nature. 2013 Feb 7;494(7435):105-10. doi: 10.1038/nature11799. Epub 2013 Jan 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Del E. Webb Neuroscience, Aging & Stem Cell Research Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23354045" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Active Transport, Cell Nucleus ; Age of Onset ; Apoptosis/genetics ; Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular ; Dysplasia/genetics/*metabolism/*pathology/physiopathology ; Cellular Reprogramming ; Culture Media/pharmacology ; Embryoid Bodies/drug effects/physiology ; Energy Metabolism/genetics ; Fatty Acids/metabolism ; Fibroblasts/metabolism/pathology ; Glucose/metabolism ; Glycolysis ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism/*pathology ; Lipogenesis/genetics ; *Models, Biological ; Myocardial Contraction/drug effects ; Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology ; PPAR alpha/metabolism ; PPAR gamma/metabolism ; Phenotype ; Plakophilins/genetics ; Time Factors ; beta Catenin/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-08-27
    Description: The GGGGCC (G4C2) repeat expansion in a noncoding region of C9orf72 is the most common cause of sporadic and familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. The basis for pathogenesis is unknown. To elucidate the consequences of G4C2 repeat expansion in a tractable genetic system, we generated transgenic fly lines expressing 8, 28 or 58 G4C2-repeat-containing transcripts that do not have a translation start site (AUG) but contain an open-reading frame for green fluorescent protein to detect repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation. We show that these transgenic animals display dosage-dependent, repeat-length-dependent degeneration in neuronal tissues and RAN translation of dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins, as observed in patients with C9orf72-related disease. This model was used in a large-scale, unbiased genetic screen, ultimately leading to the identification of 18 genetic modifiers that encode components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), as well as the machinery that coordinates the export of nuclear RNA and the import of nuclear proteins. Consistent with these results, we found morphological abnormalities in the architecture of the nuclear envelope in cells expressing expanded G4C2 repeats in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we identified a substantial defect in RNA export resulting in retention of RNA in the nuclei of Drosophila cells expressing expanded G4C2 repeats and also in mammalian cells, including aged induced pluripotent stem-cell-derived neurons from patients with C9orf72-related disease. These studies show that a primary consequence of G4C2 repeat expansion is the compromise of nucleocytoplasmic transport through the nuclear pore, revealing a novel mechanism of neurodegeneration.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4631399/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4631399/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Freibaum, Brian D -- Lu, Yubing -- Lopez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo -- Kim, Nam Chul -- Almeida, Sandra -- Lee, Kyung-Ha -- Badders, Nisha -- Valentine, Marc -- Miller, Bruce L -- Wong, Philip C -- Petrucelli, Leonard -- Kim, Hong Joo -- Gao, Fen-Biao -- Taylor, J Paul -- AG019724/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- N079725/PHS HHS/ -- NS079725/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 AG019724/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS057553/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS079725/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Sep 3;525(7567):129-33. doi: 10.1038/nature14974. Epub 2015 Aug 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Department of Neurology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA. ; Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA. ; Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, Florida 32224, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26308899" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/*genetics ; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics/pathology ; Animals ; Animals, Genetically Modified ; DNA Repeat Expansion/*genetics ; Drosophila melanogaster/*cytology/genetics/*metabolism ; Eye/metabolism ; Female ; Frontotemporal Dementia/genetics/pathology ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Male ; Muscles/cytology/metabolism ; Neurons/cytology/metabolism ; Nuclear Pore/genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Open Reading Frames/*genetics ; Phenotype ; Protein Biosynthesis ; Proteins/*genetics ; RNA/genetics/metabolism ; RNA Transport/*genetics ; Salivary Glands/cytology/metabolism/pathology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-04-02
    Description: Members of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily have important functions in immunity and inflammation. Recently linear ubiquitin chains assembled by a complex containing HOIL-1 and HOIP (also known as RBCK1 and RNF31, respectively) were implicated in TNF signalling, yet their relevance in vivo remained uncertain. Here we identify SHARPIN as a third component of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex, recruited to the CD40 and TNF receptor signalling complexes together with its other constituents, HOIL-1 and HOIP. Mass spectrometry of TNF signalling complexes revealed RIP1 (also known as RIPK1) and NEMO (also known as IKKgamma or IKBKG) to be linearly ubiquitinated. Mutation of the Sharpin gene (Sharpin(cpdm/cpdm)) causes chronic proliferative dermatitis (cpdm) characterized by inflammatory skin lesions and defective lymphoid organogenesis. Gene induction by TNF, CD40 ligand and interleukin-1beta was attenuated in cpdm-derived cells which were rendered sensitive to TNF-induced death. Importantly, Tnf gene deficiency prevented skin lesions in cpdm mice. We conclude that by enabling linear ubiquitination in the TNF receptor signalling complex, SHARPIN interferes with TNF-induced cell death and, thereby, prevents inflammation. Our results provide evidence for the relevance of linear ubiquitination in vivo in preventing inflammation and regulating immune signalling.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gerlach, Bjorn -- Cordier, Stefanie M -- Schmukle, Anna C -- Emmerich, Christoph H -- Rieser, Eva -- Haas, Tobias L -- Webb, Andrew I -- Rickard, James A -- Anderton, Holly -- Wong, Wendy W-L -- Nachbur, Ueli -- Gangoda, Lahiru -- Warnken, Uwe -- Purcell, Anthony W -- Silke, John -- Walczak, Henning -- 10950/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2011 Mar 31;471(7340):591-6. doi: 10.1038/nature09816.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Tumour Immunology Unit, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, W12 0NN London, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21455173" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; CD40 Ligand/metabolism ; Carrier Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Cell Line ; Humans ; I-kappa B Kinase/metabolism ; Immunity/*immunology ; Inflammation/*metabolism/pathology/prevention & control ; Interleukin-1beta/metabolism ; Mice ; Multiprotein Complexes/chemistry/metabolism ; NF-kappa B/metabolism ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Phenotype ; Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism ; Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; *Signal Transduction ; Skin/cytology/immunology/metabolism/pathology ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/deficiency/genetics ; Ubiquitin/chemistry/metabolism ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes/chemistry/metabolism ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/chemistry/metabolism ; *Ubiquitination
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-06-28
    Description: Editing of the human genome to correct disease-causing mutations is a promising approach for the treatment of genetic disorders. Genome editing improves on simple gene-replacement strategies by effecting in situ correction of a mutant gene, thus restoring normal gene function under the control of endogenous regulatory elements and reducing risks associated with random insertion into the genome. Gene-specific targeting has historically been limited to mouse embryonic stem cells. The development of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) has permitted efficient genome editing in transformed and primary cells that were previously thought to be intractable to such genetic manipulation. In vitro, ZFNs have been shown to promote efficient genome editing via homology-directed repair by inducing a site-specific double-strand break (DSB) at a target locus, but it is unclear whether ZFNs can induce DSBs and stimulate genome editing at a clinically meaningful level in vivo. Here we show that ZFNs are able to induce DSBs efficiently when delivered directly to mouse liver and that, when co-delivered with an appropriately designed gene-targeting vector, they can stimulate gene replacement through both homology-directed and homology-independent targeted gene insertion at the ZFN-specified locus. The level of gene targeting achieved was sufficient to correct the prolonged clotting times in a mouse model of haemophilia B, and remained persistent after induced liver regeneration. Thus, ZFN-driven gene correction can be achieved in vivo, raising the possibility of genome editing as a viable strategy for the treatment of genetic disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3152293/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3152293/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, Hojun -- Haurigot, Virginia -- Doyon, Yannick -- Li, Tianjian -- Wong, Sunnie Y -- Bhagwat, Anand S -- Malani, Nirav -- Anguela, Xavier M -- Sharma, Rajiv -- Ivanciu, Lacramiora -- Murphy, Samuel L -- Finn, Jonathan D -- Khazi, Fayaz R -- Zhou, Shangzhen -- Paschon, David E -- Rebar, Edward J -- Bushman, Frederic D -- Gregory, Philip D -- Holmes, Michael C -- High, Katherine A -- P01 HL064190/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL064190-11A1/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 HL007150/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 HL007150-35/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jun 26;475(7355):217-21. doi: 10.1038/nature10177.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Hematology, CTRB 5000, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3501 Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21706032" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Cell Line, Tumor ; DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded ; DNA Repair/*genetics ; *Disease Models, Animal ; Endonucleases/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Exons/genetics ; Factor IX/analysis/genetics ; Gene Targeting/*methods ; Genetic Therapy/*methods ; Genetic Vectors/genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; HEK293 Cells ; Hemophilia B/*genetics/physiopathology ; *Hemostasis ; Humans ; Introns/genetics ; Liver/metabolism ; Liver Regeneration ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mutation/genetics ; Phenotype ; Sequence Homology ; Zinc Fingers
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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