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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-8787
    Keywords: Transparent Query Language ; Mathematically Complete Language ; Philosophically Closed Language ; SOLID Retrieval/Processing System
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract This part, PART IIB [2], of the document “HIGH-SPEED TOOLS FOR GLOBAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT. II. Specifications and Uses of the Transparent Query Language (TQL)” [1–6] contains the specifications for the operations that provide the arithmetic capabilities for Transparent Query Language. PART IIB references PART IIA [1] and PART IIC [3]. Concise definitions of Transparent Query Language terms, Conclusions and Acknowledgments are given in PART IIF [6].
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-8787
    Keywords: Transparent Query Language ; Mathematically Complete Language ; Philosophically Closed Language ; SOLID Retrieval/Processing System
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract In the six parts of the document “HIGH-SPEED TOOLS FOR GLOBAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT. II. Specifications and Uses of the Transparent Query Language (TQL)” [1–6], the Transparent Query Language (TQL) that is the mathematical basis for the SOLID Retrieval/Processing System [7] is described and its use demonstrated. TQL is directly responsible for the speed, versatility, security and information/question-type independence of the SOLID System. It can be viewed as a Mathematically Complete (or Philosophically Closed) [8] data structure or content/context independent language capable of describing individual or classes of descriptors in any combination with any degree of specificity. The security system is easily used to prevent unauthorized access to any item in any file. TQL is sufficiently general to be used outside the context of information retrieval. It is capable of concisely representing and manipulating a wide variety of time dependent or static numeric and non-numeric information. The six parts of this document [1–6], are as follows. The first part, PART IIA [1], contains a review of the literature and then introduces the Transparent Query Language. It references PART IIB [2], PART IIC [3], PART IID [4], PART IIE [5] and PART IIF [6]. Concise definitions of Transparent Query Language terms, Conclusions and Acknowledgments are given in PART IIF [6]. Section III in PART IIA [1] contains information for converting citations of sections and subsections in the original document to their locations in the partitioned document.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-8787
    Keywords: Transparent Query Language ; Mathematically Complete Language ; Philosophically Closed Language ; SOLID Retrieval/Processing System
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract This part, PART IIC [3], of the document “HIGH-SPEED TOOLS FOR GLOBAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT. II. Specifications and Uses of the Transparent Query Language (TQL)” [1–6] is a continuation of [2] and should be studied immediately after reading PART IIB [2]. It describes (i) the security system that can be easily invoked to deny unauthorized access to any item of information in any database; (ii) the special codes that can be used to specify virtually any degree of uncertainty; (iii) the registry numbers which terminate information paths; and (iv) the command structure for the Transportable Query Language. PART IIC references PART IIA [1], PART IIB [2], PART IID [4] and PART IIF [6]. Concise definitions of Transparent Query Language terms, Conclusions and Acknowledgments are given in PART IIF [6].
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-8787
    Keywords: Transparent Query Language ; Mathematically Complete Language ; Philosophically Closed Language ; SOLID Retrieval/Processing System
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract This part, PART IID [4], of the document “HIGH-SPEED TOOLS FOR GLOBAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT. II. Specifications and Uses of the Transparent Query Language (TQL)” [1–6] is about normalization and manipulation of information representations. It references PART IIA [1], PART IIB [2] and PART IIC [3]. Concise definitions of Transparent Query Language terms, Conclusions and Acknowledgments are given in PART IIF [6].
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-8787
    Keywords: Transparent Query Language ; Mathematically Complete Language ; Philosophically Closed Language ; SOLID Retrieval/Processing System ; Sequel (SQL) ; Relational Algebra ; QUEL ; Query-By-Example (QBE)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract In this part, PART IIE [5], of the document “HIGH-SPEED TOOLS FOR GLOBAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT. II. Specifications and Uses of the Transparent Query Language (TQL)” [1–6] the conversion of queries coded in SQL, Relational Algebra, QUEL and Query-By-Examples (QBE) to TQL are demonstrated. PART IIE references PART IIA [1], PART IIB [2], PART IID [3] and PART IIF [6]. Concise definitions of Transparent Query Language terms, Conclusions and Acknowledgments are given in PART IIF [6].
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-8787
    Keywords: Transparent Query Language ; Mathematically Complete Language ; Philosophically Closed Language ; SOLID Retrieval/Processing System
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract This part, PART IIF [6], concludes the document “HIGH-SPEED TOOLS FOR GLOBAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT. II. Specifications and Uses of the Transparent Query Language (TQL)” [1–6]. It describes novel applications of TQL, the key data structures, and contains a dictionary of Transparent Query Language terms. PART IIF references PART IIA [1], PART IIB [2], PART IIC [3], PART IID [4], and PART IIE [5] and contains Conclusions and Acknowledgements.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Cancer surveillance system ; cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia ; cutaneous melanoma ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Stimulated by a recent report from a Norwegian pathology institute of an excess risk of melanoma among women with cervical neoplasia, we analyzed the relevant data from a population-based cancer registry serving western Washington State (United States). Among 11,693 women diagnosed with cervicalintra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) between 1974 and 1989 who were followed-up for at least a year, 14 cases of cutaneous melanoma were identified, in comparison with 13.7 cases expected (relative risk=1.0,95 percent confidence interval=0.5-1.7) based on the rates of melanoma among all women who resided in this area. While these results are at odds with those recently reported from the pathology institute, they are similar to those obtained in previous cancer-registry studies in several countries, which found little or no excess occurrence of melanoma following cervical cancer.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Breast neoplasms ; menopausal status ; second primary neoplasms ; United States ; women
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: To evaluate predictors of contralateral breast cancer risk, we examined data from a nested case-control study of second primary cancers among a cohort of women in western Washington (United States) diagnosed with breast cancer during 1978 through 1990 and identified through a population-based cancer registry. Cases included all women in the cohort who subsequently developed contralateral breast cancer at least six months after the initial diagnosis, but prior to 1992 (n=234). Controls were sampled randomly from the cohort, matched to cases on age, stage, and year of initial breast cancer diagnosis. Information on potential risk factors for second primary cancer was obtained through medical record abstractions and physician questionnaires. Women who were postmenopausal due to a bilateral oophorectomy (i.e., a surgical menopause) at initial breast cancer diagnosis had a reduction in contralateral breast cancer risk compared with premenopausal women (matched odds ratio [mOR]=0.25, 95 percent confidence interval [CI]=0.09–0.68), whereas no reduction in risk was noted among postmenopausal women who had had a natural menopause (mOR=0.90, CI=0.39–2.09). Among postmenopausal women, there was a suggestion of a lower risk associated with relatively high parity (2+). A family history of breast cancer was associated with an increased risk (mOR=1.96, CI=1.22–5.15) and varied little by menopausal status. Having an initial tumor with a lobular component (c.f. a ductal histology) was not related strongly to risk (mOR=1.47, CI=0.79–2.74). The results of the present and earlier studies argue that we have limited ability to predict the occurrence of a contralateral breast tumor. Better predictors will be required before diagnostic and preventive interventions can be targeted to subgroups of patients with unilateral breast cancer.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Cancer ; census ; epidemiology ; methodology ; marital status ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In registry-based population studies on marital status in relation to cancer, incidence rates sometimes have been calculated using marital status-specific populations that have been estimated by interpolation and extrapolation from census data as a denominator. Alternatively, other cancers from the same registry have been used to estimate the proportion of the population in each marital-status category in the calculation of the relative risk (RR) of a given cancer. Using cancer registry data from four United States populations for the years 1979–87, we compared the relative incidence estimated using each of the two methods. For selected cancers diagnosed during 1979–81, the age-adjusted risks of never-married Black persons were 1.5 to 2.2 times those of married persons when the population size was estimated from census data. The corresponding RRs were 0.7 to 1.1 when the ‘control’ cancers were used. Among Whites, the differences between the two methods were about 20 to 30 percent. For both races, the difference between the methods was greater still for the years for which we relied on extrapolation to estimate the population (1981–87). The differences between the risk estimates from the two methods may be related to underenumeration in the census, inconsistent definitions of marital status between cancer registries and the census, errors in the extrapolation of the population, and/or the possible association of the incidence of ‘control’ cancers with marital status. In the US, while each method has some potential for bias, we believe that the likelihood of bias is relatively greater using the censusbased method.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: China ; Hawaii ; Japan ; migrant studies ; the Philippines ; thyroid neoplasms ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We compared incidence rates of primary cancer of the thyroid among United States-born and foreign-born Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino residents of the US with rates among US-born Whites. Thyroid cancers diagnosed between 1973 and 1986 occurring among individuals 15 to 84 years of age residing in western Washington state, the San Francisco-Oakland (California) area, or the state of Hawaii were included in the analysis. Population estimates by age, gender, ethnicity, and country of birth were obtained for these areas from the US Bureau of the Census. Filipino women born in the Philippines had 3.2 (95 percent confidence interval=2.7–3.8) times the rate of thyroid cancer of US-born White women, while US-born Filipino women were not at any increased risk. Philippine-born Filipino men also had a relatively high rate of thyroid cancer (relative risk [RR]=2.6), more so than US-born Filipino men (RR=1.5). Among Japanese, risk of thyroid cancer varied by birthplace, but the direction of the association differed by gender and by histologic type of cancer. No clear association with birthplace was noted among Chinese men or women. These data suggest that persons residing in one or more regions from which Filipino-Americans migrated have been exposed to environmental influences that have increased their subsequent risk of thyroid cancer.
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