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  • Biochemistry and Biotechnology  (15)
  • Physical Chemistry  (9)
  • Wiley-Blackwell  (24)
  • 1990-1994  (24)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: In the absence of vitamin K or in the presence of the vitamin K antagonists, abnormal nonfunctional forms of prothrombin circulate in the blood. A reliable and reproducible technique, derived from traditional crossed affinoimmunoelectrophoresis in presence of calcium lactate, was developed and optimized. The technique is based on nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel affinoelectrophoresis, with calcium lactate, of plasma samples, followed by immunoblotting with rabbit anti-human prothrombin serum and detection with an anti-rabbit immunoglobulin peroxidase conjugate. Depending on the plasmas, one or two bands were visualized and quantified by densitometry of the immunoblots. The technique was able detect abnormal des-gamma-carboxylated prothrombins at concentration of 0.1 μg/mL.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: lectins ; crystal structure ; lectin specificity ; mannose ; glucose ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The structure of the methyl-α-D-mannopyranoside-LOL I complex has been solved by the molecular replacement method using the refined saccharide-free LOL I coordinates as starting model. The methyl-α-D-mannopyranoside-LOL I complex was refined by simulated annealing using the program X-PLOR. The final R-factor value is 0.182 [Fo 〉 1σ(Fo)]. The isostructural methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside-LOL I complex was refined by X-Ray coupled energy minimization using the methyl-α-D-mannopyranoside-LOL I structure as a starting model to an R factor of 0.179 (all data). In both crystal forms, each dimer binds two molecules of sugar in pockets found near the calcium ions. The two saccharide moieties, which are in the C1 chair conformation, establish the same hydrogen bond pattern with the lectin. However, the van der Walls contacts are different between the O2, C2, C6, and O6 atoms of the two molecules and the backbone atoms of residues 208-211. Mannose, due to its axial C2 conformation, encloses the backbone atoms of the protein in a clamplike way. Van der Waals energy calculations suggest that this better complementarity of the mannoside molecule with the lectin could explain its higher affinity for isolectin I.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: α/β-barrels ; protein structure ; loops ; molecular modeling ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A systematic survey of seven parallel α/β barrel protein domains, based on exhaustive structural comparisons, reveals that a sizable proportion of the αβ loops in these proteins - 20 out of a total of 49 - belong to either one of two loop types previously described by Thornton and co-workers. Six loops are of the αβ1 type, with one residue between the α-helix and β-strand, and 13 are of the αβ3 type, with three residues between the helix and the strand. Protein fragments embedding the identified loops, and termed αβ connections since they contain parts of the flanking helix and strand, have been analyzed in detail revealing that each type of connection has a distinct set of conserved structural features. The orientation of the β-strand relative to the helix and loop portions is different owing to a very localized difference in backbone conformation. In αβ1 connections, the chain enters the β-strand via a residue adopting an extended conformation, while in αβ3 it does so via a residue in a near α-helical conformation. Other conserved structural features include distinct patterns of side chain orientation relative to the β-sheet surface and of main chain H-bonds in the loop and the β-strand moieties. Significant differences also occur in packing interactions of conserved hydrophobic residues situated in the last turn of the helix. Yet the α-helix surface of both types of connections adopts similar orientations relative to the barrel sheet surface. Our results suggest furthermore that conserved hydrophobic residues along the sequence of the connections, may be correlated more with specific patterns of interactions made with neighboring helices and sheet strands than with helix/strand packing within the connection itself. A number of intriguing observations are also made on the distribution of the identified αβ1 and αβ3 loops within the α/β-barrel motifs. They often occur adjacent to each other; αβ3 loops invariably involve even numbered β-strands, while αβ1 loops involve preferentially odd β-strands; all the analyzed proteins contain at least one αβ3 loop in the first half of the eightfold α/β barrel. Possible origins of all these observations, and their relevance to the stability and folding of parallel α/β barrel. Possible origins of all these observations, and their relevance to the stability and folding of parallel α/β barrel motifs are discussed.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: X-ray structure ; TEM1 ; β-lactamase ; antibiotics ; bacterial resistance ; serine hydrolase ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The X-ray structure of Escherichia coli TEM1β-lactamase has been refined to a crystallorgphic R-factor of 16.4% for 22,510 reflections between 5.0 and 1.8 Å resolution; 199 water molecules and 1 sulphate ion were included in refinement. Except for the tips of a few solvent-exposed side chains, all protein atoms have clear electron density and refined to an average atomic temperature factor of 11 Å2. The estimated coordinates error is 0.17 Å. The substrate binding site is located at the interface of the two domains of the protein and contains 4 water molecules and the sulphate anion. One of these solvent molecules is found at hydrogen bond distance from S70 and E166. S70 and S130 are hydrogen bonded to K73 and K234, respectively. It was found that the E. coli TEM1 and Staphylococcus aureus PC1 β-lactamases crystal structures differ in the relative orientations of the two domains composing the enzymes, which result in a narrowed substrate binding cavity in the TEM1 enzyme. Local but significant differences in the vicinity of this site may explain the occurrence of TEM1 natural mutants with extended substrate specificities. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 21 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: serine carboxypeptidase ; protein modeling ; mutation analysis ; comparative modeling ; cathepsin A ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The deficiency of the lysosomal protective protein/carboxypeptidase L (CARB L) causes the lysosomal storage disorder, galactosialidosis, characterized by neuraminidase and β-galactosidase deficiencies in patients' cells. The three enzymes form a complex inside the lysosome, and the neuraminidase and β-galactosidase deficiencies are secondary to CARB L deficiency. Sequence similarity and common enzymological properties suggest that the protomeric tertiary structure of CARB L is conserved within a family of serine carboxypeptidases which includes the yeast carboxypeptidase Y, killer expression I gene product and several plant carboxypeptidases. We used this homology to build a model of the CARB L structure based on the recently published X-ray atomic coordinates of the wheat carboxypeptidase II (CPDW-II) which shares 32% primary structure identity with CARB L. Small insertions and deletions were accommodated into the model structure by energy minimization using the DREIDING II force field. The Cα atomic-coordinates of the final CARB L model have a RMS shift of 1.01 Å compared to the corresponding conserved residues in the CPDW-II template structure. The correct orientation of the homologous catalytic triad residues Ser150, His429 and Asp392, the potential energy calculations and the distribution of hydrophobic and hydrophillic residues in the structure all support the validity of the CARB L model. Most missense mutations identified in galactosialidosis patients were located in secondary structural elements except for the Tyr211→Asn mutation which is in a loop. The other mutant residues have their side chains deeply buried in the central β-sheet of the model structure except for the Phe412→Val mutation which is located in the dimer interface. The predicted effects of specific mutations on CARB L structural stability correlates well with recently published transient expression studies of mutant CARB L (Shimmoto, M. et al., J. Clin. Invest., 91:2393-2399, 1993). © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: An infrared spectroscopic study of the 1 : 1 hydrogen-bond association of amidates with both methanol and 4-fluorophenol showed that the site of complexation is the oxygen of the amidate function. However the formamidate HCON2Me3 forms a second 1 : 1 complex on the nitrogen of the amidate. The formation constants of the hydrogen-bond complexes of the amidates with the reference hydrogen-bond donor 4-FC6H4OH indicate that the amidates are stronger hydrogen-bond bases than are amides and amide vinylogues. As such, the amidates constitute the strongest carbonyl bases hitherto investigated on the hydrogen-bond basicity scale.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Stable transfection ; firefly luciferase ; nuclear receptors ; membrane-bound receptors ; MCF-7 cells ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: In the course of steroid hormone research, firefly luciferase was used as a reporter gene to construct chimeric cellular models in which the firefly luciferase expression mimics natural hormonal response. Cells containing the endogenous receptor of interest were stably transfected with a reporter gene whose expression is controlled by this endogenous receptor. Based on the detection of luciferase activity in Intact cells using a photon-counting camera, various stable transfected cell lines were established. We present potential experimental uses of these cellular models such as for screening new (anti)hormonal molecules. We also show that the hormonal responses can be modulated at any step, suggesting that these stable cell lines may be helpful in studying hormonal interactions. For example, we have detected the antiestrogen activity of molecules able to mediate their effect via a pathway other than the estrogen receptor. Lastly, we show that the detection of luciferase activity in intact living cells is particularly helpful in investigating the variation of the hormonal responses with time.Since chimeric response faithfully reflects hormone (or effector) actions in the cell, we conclude that stable transfected cells can be used in both pharmacological and fundamental studies to investigate different aspects of the endocrine research.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 38 (1991), S. 1308-1317 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Trichoderma reesei CL-847 ; steam explosion treatment ; saccharification ; inactivation ; cellulose ; hemicelluloses ; lignin ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Effects of time, temperature, and pH during the steam explosion of poplar wood were studied with the aim of optimize both pentoses recovery and enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. Steam explosion of acid impregnated wood chips allowed the recovery of 70% of potential xylose as monomers (217°C, 120 s) Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated fiber with Trichoderma reesei CL-847 cellulase system increased progressively with the severity of the steam treatment conditions. The best yield in term of glucose recovery after 24 h of enzymatic hydrolysis was 70% of potential glucose (225°C, 120 s). Deactivation by adsorption on lignin of Trichoderma reesei cellulases and inhibition of these enzymes by low-molecular-weight phenols and trihydroxybutyric acids were noticed.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A modification of crossed immunoelectrophoresis for the analysis of plasma lipoproteins is described and is called polyacrylamide gel-crossed immunoelectrophoresis. The incorporation of albumin in the first-dimensional gel facilitates the transfer of the larger lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein B from the first-dimensional gel to the second dimension. Furthermore, under this condition the quantitation of total apolipoprotein B by polyacrylamide gel-crossed immunoelectrophoresis is in good agreement with the results obtained by rocket immunoelectrophoresis or nephelometry. The correlation between polyacrylamide gel-crossed immunoelectrophoresis and rocket immunoelectrophoresis is good for total apolipoprotein B (p 〉 0.001) and apolipoprotein A-I (p 〉 0.001). Polyacrylamide gel-crossed immunoelectrophoresis also offers interesting aspects to study the plasma lipoprotein classes and subclasses in different cases: normal plasma, current and complex dyslipoproteinemias in the presence or absence of lipoprotein small a. In a case of dyslipoproteinemia of Fredrickson′s Type V polyacrylamide gel-crossed immunoelectrophoresis demonstrates the presence of a small-sized Lp (a) major peak in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) zone and of a large-sized Lp (a) minor peak in the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) zone.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Enzyme-linked immunofiltration assay (ELIFA) for labeling transferred proteins is an interesting and powerful technique for the rapid specific detection (15 min) of proteins immobilized on nitrocellulose or nylon membranes (0.20 and 0.45 μm). ELIFA does not require fastidious handling of the membranes. Saturation, specific labeling and washing procedures are achieved by filtration, controlled by a monitoring unit which regulates the flow rate and ensures excellent specificity, repetition and reproducibility. The recycling by closed circuit or by repetetive inversion of the flow direction offers the advantage of reducing the volumes of expensive reagents while simultaneously increasing the sensitivity of the technique. The detection limit is at least as low as 1-5 ng using directly or indirectly enzymatically labelled probes. ELIFA may be extended to the identification of glycoproteins using specific ligands such as lectins or to the immunocapture of an antigen using specific antibodies immobilized on an activated membrane. ELIFA complements fast separation, by e.g., isoelectric focusing, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, or sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and accelerated electrotransfer to membranes with rapid detection reducing the total time for separation transfer and detection to less than 2 h.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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