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  • 1
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The stoichiometry of the reaction of TIIII with ascorbic acid (H2A) in the presence and absence of chloride ion conforms to TIIII + H2A 〉 TII + 2H+ + A. where A is dehydroascorbic acid. The reaction exhibits complex kinetics and the reactivity of various chlorothallium (III) species decreases in the order of [TIOH]2+ 〉 TI3+ 〉 [TICI]2+ 〉 [TICI2]+ 〉 TICI3 〉 [TICI4]-. The mass balance relationship was employed to calculate the equilibrium concentration of the chloride ion for evaluation of the rate constants.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The kinetics of oxidation of metol (N-methyl-p-aminophenol) by thallium(III) have been studied in a perchloric acid medium. This organic compound is employed extensively in photographic work. The stoichiometry of the reaction is represented by: C6H4(OH)NHCH3 + TIIII → C6H4(O)NCH3 + TII + 2H+The kinetics indicate the rate law: \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$k' = \frac{{Kk\left[{metal} \right]}}{{1 + K\left[{metal} \right]}}$$\end{document} where k′ is the pseudo-first-order rate constant. The rate constants and thermodynamic parameters for the rate-limiting step have been evaluated.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0538-8066
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A kinetic study of the silver(I)-catalyzed oxidation of tris(1,10-phenanthroline)iron(II) with peroxodiphosphate was carried out by estimating tris-complex at 510 nm. The reaction is found to conform to the rate law (i). with K2 and K3 being the acid dissociation constants of H3P2O8- and H2P2O82-, respectively. The silver(I) catalysis in the reaction has been explained on the basis of complex formation between pdp and silver(I).
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0538-8066
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The kinetics of oxidation of Aspartic acid by bismuth(V) studied in HClO4-HF mixture iodometrically exhibit complex dependence with respect to aspartic acid (AA). The rate law (i) accounts for all the experimental observations. where [Bi(V)] and [AA] are the gross analytical concentration of all fluorobismuth(V) species and the equilibrium concentration of aspartic acid, respectively. The oxidation product of the amino acid was identified to be an aldehyde. HF and F- do not affect the rate of the reaction. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0538-8066
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The kinetics of the oxidation of water with bismuth(V) in presence of silver(I) has been investigated in a mixture of HClO4 (1.0 mol dm-3) and HF (1.5 mol dm-3). The reaction is second order, viz., first order with respect to bismuth(V) and silver(I), each, and the second order rate constant is (6.6 ± 0.7) × 10-3 dm3 mol-1 s-1. However, rate is independent of hydrogen ion concentration. A comparative analysis of these results with the results obtained for pdp, pds, and Ce(IV), reactions with silver(I) has also been made to correlate the rate constants and the redox-potentials of the oxidant couples.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0538-8066
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The kinetics of oxidation of amino acids viz. glycine, alanine, and threonine with bismuth(V) in HClO4-HF medium have been studied. The kinetics of the oxidation of all these amino acids exhibit similar rate laws. The second-order rate constants were calculated to be 2.04 × 10-2 dm3 mol-1 and 2.72 × 10-2 dm3 mol-1 s-1 for glycine and alanine, respectively, at 35°C and 5.9 × 10-2 dm3 mol-1 s-1 for threonine at 25°C. All the possible reactive species of both bismuth(V) and amino acids have been discussed and a most probable kinetic model in each reaction has been envisaged. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0538-8066
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Silver(I) catalyzed oxidation of aspartic acid by cerium(IV) was studied in acid perchlorate medium. The stoichiometry of the reaction is represented by the eq. (i) Dimeric cerium(IV) species has been indicated and employed in calculations of monomeric cerium(IV) species concentrations. The reaction is second-order and uncatalyzed reaction also simultaneously occurs along with the silver(I) catalyzed reaction conforming to the rate law (ii) where k is an observed second-order rate constant. A probable reaction mechanism is suggested. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 8
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2012-01-10
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sharma, Padmanee -- Allison, James P -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jan 6;335(6064):49. doi: 10.1126/science.1217940.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, The University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. padsharma@mdanderson.org〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22223799" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cancer Vaccines/history/therapeutic use ; History, 20th Century ; History, 21st Century ; Humans ; Mice ; Neoplasms/history/*immunology/therapy ; United States
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: The integrated stress response (ISR) is a homeostatic mechanism by which eukaryotic cells sense and respond to stress-inducing signals, such as amino acid starvation. General controlled non-repressed (GCN2) kinase is a key orchestrator of the ISR, and modulates protein synthesis in response to amino acid starvation. Here we demonstrate in mice that GCN2 controls intestinal inflammation by suppressing inflammasome activation. Enhanced activation of ISR was observed in intestinal antigen presenting cells (APCs) and epithelial cells during amino acid starvation, or intestinal inflammation. Genetic deletion of Gcn2 (also known as Eif2ka4) in CD11c(+) APCs or intestinal epithelial cells resulted in enhanced intestinal inflammation and T helper 17 cell (TH17) responses, owing to enhanced inflammasome activation and interleukin (IL)-1beta production. This was caused by reduced autophagy in Gcn2(-/-) intestinal APCs and epithelial cells, leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), a potent activator of inflammasomes. Thus, conditional ablation of Atg5 or Atg7 in intestinal APCs resulted in enhanced ROS and TH17 responses. Furthermore, in vivo blockade of ROS and IL-1beta resulted in inhibition of TH17 responses and reduced inflammation in Gcn2(-/-) mice. Importantly, acute amino acid starvation suppressed intestinal inflammation via a mechanism dependent on GCN2. These results reveal a mechanism that couples amino acid sensing with control of intestinal inflammation via GCN2.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4854628/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4854628/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ravindran, Rajesh -- Loebbermann, Jens -- Nakaya, Helder I -- Khan, Nooruddin -- Ma, Hualing -- Gama, Leonardo -- Machiah, Deepa K -- Lawson, Benton -- Hakimpour, Paul -- Wang, Yi-chong -- Li, Shuzhao -- Sharma, Prachi -- Kaufman, Randal J -- Martinez, Jennifer -- Pulendran, Bali -- R01 DK088227/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK103185/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI048638/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK042394/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK057665/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI057266/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI090023/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- ZIA ES103286-01/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):523-7. doi: 10.1038/nature17186. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05508, Brazil. ; Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046, India. ; Division of Pathology, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; Virology Core, Emory Vaccine Center and Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; Degenerative Disease Program, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037 USA. ; National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Mail Drop D2-01 Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982722" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acids/administration & dosage/deficiency/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Animals ; Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology/metabolism ; Autophagy ; Colitis/etiology/*metabolism/pathology/prevention & control ; Disease Models, Animal ; Epithelial Cells/metabolism ; Female ; Humans ; Inflammasomes/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Inflammation/etiology/*metabolism/pathology/prevention & control ; Interleukin-1beta/immunology ; Intestines/*metabolism/*pathology ; Male ; Mice ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/deficiency/metabolism ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism ; Stress, Physiological ; Th17 Cells/immunology ; Ubiquitin-Activating Enzymes/deficiency/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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