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  • 1
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Diet ; Physical exercise ; Plasma lipid concentrations ; Anxiety
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study evaluates the influence of diet and physical exercise on plasma lipid concentrations — total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and the TC:HDL-C ratio, in a homogeneous (age, sex and anxiety levels) group of young pilots divided into the following groups: A. uncontrolled diet and exercise programme; B. controlled diet and uncontrolled exercise programme; C. controlled diet and exercise programme (n=90). The dietary intake was a typical Mediterranean diet, which was supervised by the Flight Surgeon. The exercise was based on a physical training programme for pilots, directed by the Physical Training Officer. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test was performed to evaluate the anxiety levels. This test was supervised by a psychologist. The results showed a marked difference in all the lipid parameters studied between groups with an ad libitum diet versus groups with a controlled diet, this difference being demonstrated by TC and TG concentrations lower in the group with a controlled diet, than in the group with an ad libitum diet. A difference in HDL-C concentrations and TC :HDL-C ratio was found between groups with regular physical training (high HDL-C concentration and low TC:HDL-C ratio) versus groups with unlimited exercise (low HDL-C concentrations and high TC: HDL-C ratio). No differences in the state and trait of anxiety were found among any of the groups. Nevertheless, all the pilots showed a considerable increase in their anxiety state over their own anxiety trait.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Ultrastructure ; Muscle growth ; Hypertrophy ; Hyperplasia ; Histochemistry ; Fish ; Sparus aurata, Dicentrarchus labrax (Teleostei)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Fibre-type differentiation of the lateral musculature has been studied in Sparus aurata (L.) and Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) during larval development. Histochemical and ultrastructural techniques show two presumptive muscle layers and two germinative zones of presumptive myoblasts. At hatching, myotomal muscle consists of a monolayer of thin undifferentiated cells near the skin (first germinative zone) overlying another mono-layer of small diameter fibres extending hypaxially and epaxially away from the transverse septum. Below this, there is a much thicker, deep layer of fibres, generally large in diameter and polygonal in shape. The presumptive myoblasts are located between these two layers of fibres in the second germinative zone. Initially, the superficial and deep muscle fibres show high and low myosin ATPase activity, respectively. Both layers grow by generating new fibres from the two mentioned germinative zones. At the end of larval life, the superficial layer changes its histochemical profile from high to low myosin ATPase activity and, at the same time, intermediate or pink muscle fibres can be observed by oxidative activity (the NADH-TR reaction). Morphometric analysis shows a significant increase in mean fibre diameter during successive ages, as shown by the Student's t-test (hypertrophic growth). Skewness and kurtosis values of fibre diameters point to the generation of a new fibre population from the germinative zones (hyperplastic growth).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words: Ultrastructure ; Muscle growth ; Hypertrophy ; Hyperplasia ; Histochemistry ; Fish ; Sparus aurata ; Dicentrarchus labrax (Teleostei)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Fibre-type differentiation of the lateral musculature has been studied in Sparus aurata (L.) and Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) during larval development. Histochemical and ultrastructural techniques show two presumptive muscle layers and two germinative zones of presumptive myoblasts. At hatching, myotomal muscle consists of a monolayer of thin undifferentiated cells near the skin (first germinative zone) overlying another monolayer of small diameter fibres extending hypaxially and epaxially away from the transverse septum. Below this, there is a much thicker, deep layer of fibres, generally large in diameter and polygonal in shape. The presumptive myoblasts are located between these two layers of fibres in the second germinative zone. Initially, the superficial and deep muscle fibres show high and low myosin ATPase activity, respectively. Both layers grow by generating new fibres from the two mentioned germinative zones. At the end of larval life, the superficial layer changes its histochemical profile from high to low myosin ATPase activity and, at the same time, intermediate or pink muscle fibres can be observed by oxidative activity (the NADH-TR reaction). Morphometric analysis shows a significant increase in mean fibre diameter during successive ages, as shown by the Student’s t-test (hypertrophic growth). Skewness and kurtosis values of fibre diameters point to the generation of a new fibre population from the germinative zones (hyperplastic growth).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Dog ; Muscle ; Development ; Fibre ; Histochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In this study the differentiation of postnatal muscle fibres in dog semitendinosus muscle has been characterized. Several histochemical techniques for myosin ATPase and metabolic activity were used in animals aged between 1 day and 2 months. The results show that at birth there are two types of fibre, whose ATPase activity gradually changes during postnatal development, so that several types of fibre can be identified after 2 months. These finally become the four types of the adult: I, IIA, IIDog, IIC. The main conclusions of the study are that the use of mATPase techniques is appropriate for showing the differentiation between muscle fibres, even at early stages of postnatal development, and that the origin of the four different fibres of the adult can be traced back to early postnatal stages.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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