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  • 1
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The cupula of the supraorbital neuromast in the lateral line canal of the clown knifefish contains vertical columns. In the central region of the cupula overlying the macula, these columns are densely packed, are relatively constant in size, and run from the base of the cupula to the surface of the cupula which is exposed to canal fluid. There are two types of columns, dark and light, which form elliptical compartments in planes of section that cut across the columns; the cupula therefore has the appearance of mosaic tile in such sections. The dark compartments contain tubules that extend from the base of the cupula at the junction with the macula to the top of the cupula. Each tubule is associated with the kinocilium of a single hair cell. The lateral parts of the cupula, not overlying the macula, also contain compartments, but these compartments differ in size and structure from those in the central region. In addition to the compartments, the central region of the cupula also contains spherical aggregates of droplets. These small aggregates, termed mora, are found principally in a layer within the central region of the cupula, but are also found outside this layer. Because of their light-reflecting properties, the mora can be used for noninvasive optical measurements in vivo of the motion of the cupula.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0449-2978
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A technique for estimating Mc, the molecular weight between crosslinks, of amine-cured epoxy resins is described. The technique is based upon the stoichiometry of the curing reaction and the amount of primary amino and epoxy groups remaining in the polymer at a given time. The Mc values so calculated are shown to be consistent with Mc results obtained from separate measurements of swelling and the polymer-solvent interaction parameter χ1 for the range of polymer concentration in which both measurements could be obtained. A means of estimating the relative reaction rates of the primary and secondary amino groups with the epoxy groups is given. Under proper curing conditions the amine-epoxy reaction goes very nearly to completion. The presence or absence of an exotherm has no noticeable effect on the course of the reaction between bisphenol A-epichlorohydrin (Epon 828) and methylene dianiline.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: forskolin ; cholera toxin ; pertussis toxin ; interleukin-2 ; T lymphocyte ; G protein ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The Nb2 T lymphoma is unique in that these lymphocytes proliferate in response to prolactin as well as in response to interleukin-2. In this study, we have examined the responsiveness of the adenylate cyclase system in Nb2 cells and the role of this signaling system in regulating proliferation and protein phosphorylation. An analog of cAMP inhibited prolactin-stimulated proliferation and blocked a prolactin-induced decrease in protein phosphorylation. Forskolin, a potent activator of adenylate cyclase in T lymphocytes, did not elevate cAMP levels in Nb2 cells and was not an effective inhibitor of prolactin-induced proliferation. In fact, one preparation of forskolin stimulated proliferation of quiescent Nb2 cells. Like forskolin, prostaglandin E2 did not stimulate cAMP production in Nb2 cells even though, it increased cAMP in a preparation of rat peripheral blood lymphocytes. Cholera toxin appeared to ADP-ribosylate a stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein in Nb2 cells, but the toxin did not increase intracellular levels of cAMP nor was it a potent anti-mitogenic agent. Pertussis toxin, an agent that can increase cAMP production through suppression of the inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding protein, exerted only minor anti-proliferative actions on prolactin-stimulated Nb2 cells. These data suggest that cAMP inhibits Nb2 cell proliferation and prolactin-induced changes in protein phosphorylation but that the adenylate cyclase system in our clone of Nb2 cells responds poorly to agents that normally increase cAMP.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: 2D-PAGE ; human tumors ; HEp-3 ; subcellular fractionation ; negative regulators ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Human epidermoid carcinoma (HEp-3) cells are highly tumorigenic and metastatic in vivo, but their metastatic phenotype is progressively and uniquely lost upon serial passage in vitro. The nonmetastatic phenotype is fully reversible to the highly metastatic state when HEp-3 cells are passaged back in vivo.To study the complex process of metastasis and its possible negative regulation by specific gene products, the expression of specific proteins between the highly metastatic and nonmetastatic HEp-3 cells was investigated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and subsequent computer assisted analyses. Concomitant with the in vitro loss of metastatic potential of HEp-3 cells is the elevated expression of a subset of low abundance proteins detectable in 2D-PAGE but not apparent in high resolution one dimensional PAGE. When the HEp-3 cells revert to the metastatic state, the expression of these proteins declines. The increased abundance of four distinct proteins directly correlates with the loss of the metastatic phenotype: two of the four proteins are associated with isolated cellular membranes (36kD, pl 5.7; 22kDa, pl 5.6), on protein fractionates with the cytoplasm (65kD, pl 6.2), and one protein is enriched in the nuclei fraction (32kD, pl 5.8). These data indicate that computer-assisted analysis of highly sensitive, large-format, 2D-PAGE can be used to identify specific proteins in subcellular compartments that are candidates for negative regulators of the metastatic process. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: entangled polymer solution ; double-step strain rate ; flow birefringence ; tube model ; segmental stretch ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Experiments measuring the orientation angle and birefringence in startup and double-step strain rate flows were conducted on a 3.0 wt % 8.42 × 106 molecular weight polystyrene solution in a Couette flow cell. A phase-modulated flow birefringence apparatus was used to noninvasively probe the sample. Upon startup from rest, the orientation angle undershoots its final steady-state value, as seen by earlier investigators. When the shear rate undergoes a step increase from one nonzero value to another, the amplitude of this undershoot is decreased. However, a more significant effect is a shorter time scale overshoot in the orientation angle that is highly counterintuitive in the sense that an increase of shear rate initially produces a rotation of chain segments away from the flow direction. Similarly, a step decrease in shear rate yields an initial transient rotation toward the flow direction. In both cases, the height of the peaks depends upon the magnitude of the shear rate jump, and the width of the peaks is a function of the final shear rate. The longer time transients in the startup and step increase experiments reflect an apparent change in the relaxation time for segment orientation, which we tentatively attribute to a combination of tube dilation and convective constraint release. The shorter time scale over- and undershoots in the orientation angle appear to be qualitatively explained by considering the differences in extension or contraction of segments along the polymer chain. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 265-280, 1998
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 69 (1941), S. 481-498 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 184 (1985), S. 23-31 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Lifelike models of the oscillating legs treated as three-segment systems show the course of kinetic and potential energy over the locomotor cycle for a cheetah, pronghorn, jackrabbit, and elephant running at speeds approaching their maxima. The models can be adjusted to eliminate differences among the animals in time intervals, mass or length of limb, and joint angles. This facilitates analysis of the influence on total energy of each of these variables and of the distribution of mass among leg segments. Fast-cycling legs of the carnivore type have significantly more energy than those of the hoofed type. This may contribute to the lesser endurance that is usual for carnivores that hunt using a high-speed dash.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: genome ; calmodulin ; smooth muscle ; immunohistochemistry ; heart ; development ; protein kinase ; tissue selective ; calcium ; signal transduction ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: We report that the genetic locus that encodes vertebrate smooth muscle and nonmuscle myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and kinase-related protein (KRP) has a complex arrangement and a complex pattern of expression. Three proteins are encoded by 31 exons that have only one variation, that of the first exon of KRP, and the genomic locus spans approximately 100 kb of DNA. The three proteins can differ in their relative abundance and localization among tissues and with development. MLCK is a calmodulin (CaM) regulated protein kinase that phosphorylates the light chain of myosin II. The chicken has two MLCK isoforms encoded by the MLCK/KRP locus. KRP does not bind CaM and is not a protein kinase. However, KRP binds to and regulates the structure of myosin II. Thus, KRP and MLCK have the same subcellular target, the myosin II molecular motor system. We examined the tissue and cellular localization of KRP and MLCK in the chicken embryo and in adult chicken tissues. We report on the selective localization of KRP and MLCK among and within tissues and on a differential distribution of the proteins between embryonic and adult tissues. The results fill a void in our knowledge about the organization of the MLCK/KRP genetic locus, which appears to be a late evolving regulatory paradigm, and suggest an independent and complex regulation of expression of the gene products from the MLCK/KRP genetic locus that may reflect a basic principle found in other eukaryotic gene clusters that encode functionally linked proteins. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:402-413, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0449-2978
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Nylon 66 films exhibiting form I melting behavior show the γ mechanical relaxation at -140°C. Samples which have form II melting behavior do not show this relaxation. The γ relaxation disappears when material having form I behavior is converted to material having form II behavior by annealing or by cold drawing. The form I and form II types of melting behavior are also found in poly(ethylene terephthalate); the interconversions and thermal behavior of the forms are analogous to the nylon 66 case. In poly(ethylene terephthalate), the β relaxation at -40 to -60°C is present only when form I melting behavior is found. Conversion to form II melting behavior by annealing or drawing (80°C) again causes the relaxation to disappear. No β relaxation was found in amorphous polymer. The γ dispersion in nylon 66 and the β dispersion in poly(ethylene terephthalate) can therefore be associated with the crystalline structure responsible for form I melting behavior. Form I melting behavior has been associated with foldedchain crystals based on previous work. It is therefore postulated that the γ dispersion in nylon 66 and the β dispersion in poly(ethylene terephthalate) are associated with motions in the chain folds. This assignment is not inconsistent with the change in the γ dispersion of nylon 66 with the number of backbone CH2 units, since these will affect the fold structure.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: gene regulation ; 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin ; cytochrome P1-450 ; receptor ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) dioxin, produces a diverse set of biological responses which, in some cases, reflects the altered expression of specific genes. An intracellular receptor protein binds TCDD saturably and with high affinity and mediates several of TCDD's biological effects. In mouse hepatoma cells, TCDD induces aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity by activating the transcription of the cytochrome P1-450 gene. Studies of receptor-defective variant cells indicate that the activation of cytochrome P1-450 gene transcription requires functional TCDD receptors. Analysis of the DNA that flanks the 5′-end of the mouse cytochrome P1-450 gene reveals at least three control regions: a promoter, an inhibitory element, and a dioxin-responsive element (DRE). Therefore, expression of the cytochrome P1-450 gene represents a balance between negative and positive control. The DRE contains two discrete, non-overlapping DNA domains that respond to TCDD. Each TCDD-responsive domain acts independently of the other, each requires TCDD receptors for function, and each has the properties of a transcriptional enhancer. For example, the function of the DREs is relatively independent of both their location and their orientation with respect to the promoter. Together, the DREs and the TCDD-receptor complex constitute a dioxin-responsive enhancer system. Exposure of cells to TCDD results in the protection of a specific DNA domain from exonuclease digestion. This protection requires TCDD receptors. The protected domain maps to a DRE. This observation implies that the TCDD-receptor complex interacts with the DRE to activate the transcription of the cytochrome P1-450 gene.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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