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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (3)
  • *Magnetic Fields  (1)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-04-13
    Description: Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate magnetosensation in vertebrates is a formidable scientific problem. One hypothesis is that magnetic information is transduced into neuronal impulses by using a magnetite-based magnetoreceptor. Previous studies claim to have identified a magnetic sense system in the pigeon, common to avian species, which consists of magnetite-containing trigeminal afferents located at six specific loci in the rostral subepidermis of the beak. These studies have been widely accepted in the field and heavily relied upon by both behavioural biologists and physicists. Here we show that clusters of iron-rich cells in the rostro-medial upper beak of the pigeon Columbia livia are macrophages, not magnetosensitive neurons. Our systematic characterization of the pigeon upper beak identified iron-rich cells in the stratum laxum of the subepidermis, the basal region of the respiratory epithelium and the apex of feather follicles. Using a three-dimensional blueprint of the pigeon beak created by magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, we mapped the location of iron-rich cells, revealing unexpected variation in their distribution and number--an observation that is inconsistent with a role in magnetic sensation. Ultrastructure analysis of these cells, which are not unique to the beak, showed that their subcellular architecture includes ferritin-like granules, siderosomes, haemosiderin and filopodia, characteristics of iron-rich macrophages. Our conclusion that these cells are macrophages and not magnetosensitive neurons is supported by immunohistological studies showing co-localization with the antigen-presenting molecule major histocompatibility complex class II. Our work necessitates a renewed search for the true magnetite-dependent magnetoreceptor in birds.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Treiber, Christoph Daniel -- Salzer, Marion Claudia -- Riegler, Johannes -- Edelman, Nathaniel -- Sugar, Cristina -- Breuss, Martin -- Pichler, Paul -- Cadiou, Herve -- Saunders, Martin -- Lythgoe, Mark -- Shaw, Jeremy -- Keays, David Anthony -- England -- Nature. 2012 Apr 11;484(7394):367-70. doi: 10.1038/nature11046.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr-Gasse, 1030 Vienna, Austria.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22495303" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Migration ; Animals ; Beak/anatomy & histology/*cytology ; Columbidae/*anatomy & histology/physiology ; Feathers/cytology/ultrastructure ; Ferrocyanides/analysis ; Immunohistochemistry ; Iron/analysis/*metabolism ; Macrophages/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; *Magnetic Fields ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Neurons/metabolism ; Orientation ; Respiratory Mucosa/cytology/ultrastructure ; *Sensation ; Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0449-2978
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: When cellulose triacetates and some hydrolyzed acetates are boiled in 2.5N hydrochloric acid there is no residue. Under the same conditions cellulose is hydrolyzed, and a residue is obtained with a limiting viscosity that is related to the average length of the cellulose crystallites. These findings are combined to develop a method for studying the progress of acetylation through the amorphous portion of cellulose and into the crystallites, and to investigate the relative reactivities of cellulose I and cellulose II. Acetates were made from cotton and wood cellulose by a “fibrous” (heterogeneous) esterification involving sulfoacetic acid or perchloric acid catalyst in acetic acid-acetic anhydride; the final acetyl contents (10-41%) were attained by stopping the reaction at various points short of the triester (rather than by hydrolyzing a triester). When these acetates were boiled in 2.5N HCI they did not disappear completely, and the residues were cellulose I, indicating that cellulose acetate had been removed. With increasing acetyl the yield of residue decreased, and beyond about 33% acetyl the viscosity and x-ray measurements showed that the length and width of the crystallites decreased. However, when a nonsolvent such as toluene was added to the acetylation medium, the limiting viscosity did not change over the same acetyl range (up to 40%). Samples of varying acetyl values were taken during a regular acetylation of cotton linters in a mixer with sulfuric acid catalyst. X-ray studies of the residues obtained by boiling the acetates in 2.5N HCI revealed the presence of unreacted cellulose I even after 40% acetyl had been reached. This explains why the manufacture of cellulose esters from cellulose I requires complete esterification before they are hydrolyzed to the desired acetyl level. It was shown that there is a distinct difference between the acetylation reactivity of cellulose I and cellulose II. This indicates the importance of avoiding cellulose II formation during the refinement of cellulose for the manufacture of cellulose acetate in a process involving activation with acetic acid.
    Additional Material: 22 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: This paper describes the design principles of a new endoprosthesis made of dense aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and implanted without bone cement. Mechanical tests and animal experiments have proved the sufficient mechanical strength of the bone-prosthesis connection as well as the biocompatibility of the material. So far, 12 tumor patients selected according to strict indication criteria have been operated on. Both the clinical-radiologic and the first histological findings available are encouraging. Special reference is made to the first fully ceramic total hip joint endoprostheses implanted in a human without bone cement.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Various implants have been developed for the upper and lower extremities and the spine. In order to establish whether endoprostheses made of Al2O3 will show the same good biocompatibility in humans as it has in experiments with animals, endoprostheses implantations were performed in 4 patients: 2 upper arms, 1 radius, 1 vertebra body. The implants were exposed to various loads. The biomechanical conditions were considered in the construction. The results reveal that the knowledge of material properties and prior calculations make possible the development of satisfactory endoprostheses. X-ray examinations confirm these deductions. Good functionality was achieved in vivo with all implants. They were all mechanically anchored, no bone cement was used. Thus the biocompatibility of the material was not limited. A histological examination is made of one implant. The macroscopic examination showed a stable fit and no pathological reactions. X-rays revealed that the bone remained in good contact with the implant. The longest observation period was over 1 1/4 years. Present observations show that the use of Al2O3 implants, without the use of additional materials (bone cement), results in a tight fit of the implants.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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