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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (2)
  • ASIANS  (1)
  • ASSOCIATION  (1)
  • ENGLAND  (1)
  • 1
    Keywords: DISEASE ; MORTALITY ; ASSOCIATION ; PREVALENCE ; COMPLICATIONS ; MORBIDITY ; EUROPEANS ; ENGLAND ; US POPULATION ; ASIANS
    Abstract: This study describes the distribution of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose concentrations in the combined year 1 (2008-2009), year 2 (2009-2010) and year 3 (2010-2011) of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme. The NDNS rolling programme is a nationally representative survey of food consumption, nutrient intakes and nutritional status of people aged 1.5 years and over living in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The study population comprised survey members who completed three or four days of dietary recording and who provided a blood sample. After excluding survey members with self-reported diabetes (n=25), there were 1016 results for HbA1c and 942 for glucose (not the same individuals in each case). Around 5.4% of men and 1.7% of women aged 19-64 years, and 5.1% of men and 5.9% of women aged 〉/=65 years had impaired fasting glucose (glucose concentrations 6.1-6.9 mmol/L). Over 20% of men aged 〉/=65 years had fasting glucose concentrations above the clinical cut-off for diabetes (〉/=7 mmol/L) compared to 2.1% of women of similar age (p=0.007). Similarly, 16.4% of men had HbA1c concentrations 〉/=6.5%, compared to 1.5% of women (p=0.003). Children and teenagers had fasting glucose and HbA1c values largely within the normal range. To conclude, this is the first study to provide data on the distribution of HbA1c and glucose concentrations in a nationally representative sample of the British population. The high prevalence of men aged 〉/=65 years with HbA1c and glucose concentrations above the clinical cut-off of diabetes warrants further attention.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24052516
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0449-2978
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The adsorption of some polyacids, principally poly(acrylic acid), on nylon powder has been studied. In aqueous solutions at low pH the adsorption behavior of poly(acrylic acid) is controlled by adsorbate coil dimensions rather than by electrostatic effects. Less adsorption takes place from methanol solutions but the process is much more rapid than from water. Above a critical value, increase of adsorbate molecular weight leads to a reduced adsorption, the effect being particularly evidenced by aqueous solutions. Model compounds (propionic and glutaric acids) are rapidly adsorbed from both methanol and water, but give low specific absorptions. Adsorption of poly(acrylic acids) and model compounds, is reduced, but not eliminated, by modification of the nylon adsorbent through acetylation or methoxymethylation. The adsorption of poly(acrylic acid) on nylon is not readily reversible; however, partial neutralization will release preadsorbed poly(acrylic acid) from nylon powder. The adsorption behavior of copolymers of acrylic acid with N-vinylpyrrolidone is reported, as are brief studies on some other homopolyacids. The results are generally interpreted on the basis of sorption of the macromolecules into a swollen, flexible adsorbent.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0449-2978
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Nylon fibers of various draw ratios have been used as the adsorbents in the adsorption of low molecular weight acids and of polyacrylic acids from solution. Polymer adsorption is lower than on a precipitated nylon and decreases with fiber orientation; however, propionic acid and glutaric acids do not show this dependence on nylon structure. The structural alterations consequent on fiber drawing also reduce swelling in hydroxylated liquids. The greater accessibility of the precipitated nylon is shown by vapor sorption and extends to nonhydroxylated vapors; however, the differences in behavior between polyamide powder and fiber cannot be fully attributed to the former possessing a porous structure, in the sense normally employed in surface chemistry.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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