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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-02-02
    Description: The conserved kinases Mps1 and Ipl1/Aurora B are critical for enabling chromosomes to attach to microtubules so that partner chromosomes will be segregated correctly from each other, but the precise roles of these kinases have been unclear. We imaged live yeast cells to elucidate the stages of chromosome-microtubule interactions and their regulation by Ipl1 and Mps1 through meiosis I. Ipl1 was found to release kinetochore-microtubule (kMT) associations after meiotic entry, liberating chromosomes to begin homologous pairing. Surprisingly, most chromosome pairs began their spindle interactions with incorrect kMT attachments. Ipl1 released these improper connections, whereas Mps1 triggered the formation of new force-generating microtubule attachments. This microtubule release and reattachment cycle could prevent catastrophic chromosome segregation errors in meiosis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3604795/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3604795/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Meyer, Regis E -- Kim, Seoyoung -- Obeso, David -- Straight, Paul D -- Winey, Mark -- Dawson, Dean S -- GM-07135/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM087377/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM051312/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM087377/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007135/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Mar 1;339(6123):1071-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1232518. Epub 2013 Jan 31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell Cycle and Cancer Biology, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23371552" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aurora Kinases ; Chromosome Segregation/genetics/*physiology ; Chromosomes, Fungal/*genetics ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Kinetochores/enzymology ; Meiosis/genetics/*physiology ; Microtubules/enzymology ; Mutation ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics/*physiology ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzymology/genetics/*physiology ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/genetics/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-07-07
    Description: Microbial populations stochastically generate variants with strikingly different properties, such as virulence or avirulence and antibiotic tolerance or sensitivity. Photorhabdus luminescens bacteria have a variable life history in which they alternate between pathogens to a wide variety of insects and mutualists to their specific host nematodes. Here, we show that the P. luminescens pathogenic variant (P form) switches to a smaller-cell variant (M form) to initiate mutualism in host nematode intestines. A stochastic promoter inversion causes the switch between the two distinct forms. M-form cells are much smaller (one-seventh the volume), slower growing, and less bioluminescent than P-form cells; they are also avirulent and produce fewer secondary metabolites. Observations of form switching by individual cells in nematodes revealed that the M form persisted in maternal nematode intestines, were the first cells to colonize infective juvenile (IJ) offspring, and then switched to P form in the IJ intestine, which armed these nematodes for the next cycle of insect infection.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4006969/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4006969/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Somvanshi, Vishal S -- Sloup, Rudolph E -- Crawford, Jason M -- Martin, Alexander R -- Heidt, Anthony J -- Kim, Kwi-suk -- Clardy, Jon -- Ciche, Todd A -- 1K99 GM097096-01/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- K99 GM097096/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R00 GM097096/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM086258/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jul 6;337(6090):88-93. doi: 10.1126/science.1216641.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22767929" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Fimbriae Proteins/genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Genome, Bacterial ; Intestines/microbiology ; Moths/*microbiology ; Mutation ; Phenotype ; Photorhabdus/cytology/*genetics/growth & development/*pathogenicity ; *Promoter Regions, Genetic ; Rhabditoidea/*microbiology ; *Sequence Inversion ; *Symbiosis ; Virulence/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-20
    Description: Most cancer cells are characterized by aneuploidy, an abnormal number of chromosomes. We have identified a clue to the mechanistic origins of aneuploidy through integrative genomic analyses of human tumors. A diverse range of tumor types were found to harbor deletions or inactivating mutations of STAG2, a gene encoding a subunit of the cohesin complex, which regulates the separation of sister chromatids during cell division. Because STAG2 is on the X chromosome, its inactivation requires only a single mutational event. Studying a near-diploid human cell line with a stable karyotype, we found that targeted inactivation of STAG2 led to chromatid cohesion defects and aneuploidy, whereas in two aneuploid human glioblastoma cell lines, targeted correction of the endogenous mutant alleles of STAG2 led to enhanced chromosomal stability. Thus, genetic disruption of cohesin is a cause of aneuploidy in human cancer.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3374335/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3374335/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Solomon, David A -- Kim, Taeyeon -- Diaz-Martinez, Laura A -- Fair, Joshlean -- Elkahloun, Abdel G -- Harris, Brent T -- Toretsky, Jeffrey A -- Rosenberg, Steven A -- Shukla, Neerav -- Ladanyi, Marc -- Samuels, Yardena -- James, C David -- Yu, Hongtao -- Kim, Jung-Sik -- Waldman, Todd -- CA097257/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA133662/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA138212/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA169345/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA115699/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R21CA143282/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Z01 HG200337-01/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Aug 19;333(6045):1039-43. doi: 10.1126/science.1203619.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20057, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21852505" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Aneuploidy ; Antigens, Nuclear/*genetics/*physiology ; Cell Cycle ; Cell Line ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Chromatids/physiology ; *Chromosomal Instability ; Chromosomes, Human, X/genetics ; Female ; Gene Deletion ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Gene Silencing ; Gene Targeting ; Glioblastoma/*genetics ; Humans ; Karyotyping ; Male ; Melanoma/genetics ; Mutation ; Neoplasms/*genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Sarcoma, Ewing/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-09-14
    Description: Changes in ambient temperature affect flowering time in plants; understanding this phenomenon will be crucial for buffering agricultural systems from the effects of climate change. Here, we show that levels of FLM-beta, an alternatively spliced form of the flowering repressor FLOWERING LOCUS M, increase at lower temperatures, repressing flowering. FLM-beta interacts with SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP); SVP is degraded at high temperatures, reducing the abundance of the SVP-FLM-beta repressor complex and, thus, allowing the plant to flower. The svp and flm mutants show temperature-insensitive flowering in different temperature ranges. Control of SVP-FLM-beta repressor complex abundance via transcriptional and splicing regulation of FLM and posttranslational regulation of SVP protein stability provides an efficient, rapid mechanism for plants to respond to ambient temperature changes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lee, Jeong Hwan -- Ryu, Hak-Seung -- Chung, Kyung Sook -- Pose, David -- Kim, Soonkap -- Schmid, Markus -- Ahn, Ji Hoon -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Nov 1;342(6158):628-32. doi: 10.1126/science.1241097. Epub 2013 Sep 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Creative Research Initiatives, Department of Life Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, South Korea.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24030492" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alternative Splicing ; Arabidopsis/genetics/*growth & development/metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Flowers/genetics/*growth & development/metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; MADS Domain Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Repressor Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Temperature ; Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: polybenzimidazole ; polyimide ; blends ; miscibility ; infrared spectroscopy ; poly(amic acid) ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The precursor of polybenzimidazole (PBI), poly(3,3′-diamino-4,4′-benzidine isophthalamide) (PDABI), was synthesized from poly(3,3′-dinitro-4,4′-benzidine isophthalamide) (PDNBI) by reduction. With increasing temperature, the NH2 moiety which was protected by SnCl5-1 could cyclize and form PBI. Blends with polyamic acid (LaRC-TPI) were prepared. Clear blend films were prepared at up to 400°C. The IR spectra displayed shifts in the NH stretching band, thereby providing evidence for specific interactions related to the miscibility of their cured blends. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 26 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymers for Advanced Technologies 1 (1990), S. 49-73 
    ISSN: 1042-7147
    Keywords: Aramids ; Substituted aramids ; Copolyaramids ; Benzoxazole ; Cyanoaramids ; Thermal degradation ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Various aramids having a cyano group on the diamine ring were synthesized. Aramids containing a cyano group ortho to the amide bond underwent thermal degradation via a two step mechanism, whereas those containing a cyano group meta to the amide bond did not. The first step represented the loss of HCN resulting in benzoxazole polymers, which degraded further in the second stage producing high char yield at 900°C. The thermal studied of copolyamides from m-phenylenediamine, 2,4-diaminobenzonitrile, and iso- or terephthaloyl chloride showed that as the mole fraction of 2,4-DABN increased the initial decomposition temperature decreased, but the char yield and glass transition temperature increased gradually from the poly(1,3-phenylene isophthalamide) to the polycyanamide homopolymer. To confirm the nucleophilic displacement reaction mechanism rather than isomerization cyclization suggested by Barashkov et al. for aramids with the cyano group ortho to the amide bond, a high-temperature cell attached to a FT-IR spectrometer were employed. Model compound studies also showed evidence for the benzoxazole ring formation.
    Additional Material: 39 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymers for Advanced Technologies 7 (1996), S. 195-195 
    ISSN: 1042-7147
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A procedure for the preparation of new block copolymers composed of a hydrophobic block of polystyrene, a hydrophilic spacer-block of poly(ethylene oxide) and a bioactive block of heparin was investigated. Polystyrene with one amino group per chain was synthesized by free radical oligomerization of styrene in dimethylformamide, using 2-aminoethanethiol as a chain transfer agent. This amino group was used in the coupling reaction with amino-telechelic poly(ethylene oxide) to produce an AB type diblock copolymer with one amino group per polystyrene (PSt)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) chain. The amino-semitelechelic oligo-styrene was converted into the isocyanate-semitelechelic oligo-styrene using toluene 2,4-diisocyanate and subsequent coupling with H2N-PEO-NH2 afforded AB type block copolymers with terminal amino groups. The coupling of PSt-PEO-NH2 with heparin was performed in a DMF-H2O mixture, first by activating the heparin carboxylic groups with EDC at pH 5.1-5.2 and subsequently reacting the activated carboxylic groups with the amino groups of the PSt-PEO-NH2 at pH 7.5. Depending on the molecular weights of the diblock copolymer used 25-29% w/w heparin was incorporated. These polymers will be further evaluated for their blood-compatibility.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: As far as the mixing performance in single-screw extrusion processes is concerned, it is well known that the deformation measure or stretching which materials undergo due to the regular flows inside a conventional screw channel increases linearly with the extruder channel length. In general, the chaotic mixing is far superior to the regular mixing. Therefore, it would be fascinating if one could make the chaotic mixing possible in single-screw extruders with a special, and yet easily manufacturable screw without sacrificing the pumping performance of single-screw extruders. With this purpose in mind, we have developed a new screw (termed “Chaos Screw”) for the single-screw extrusion process to enhance the mixing performance via the chaotic flows. The main idea of the Chaos Screw design lies in the spatially periodic barriers inserted in the channel to break closed streamlines in regular flows, which induces the chaotic mixing. The present article describes the basic mechanism of the chaotic mixing in a single-screw extruder and presents experimental evidence of the chaotic mixing using the Chaos Screw. Experimental mixing patterns due to the chaotic flow clearly indicate that the Chaos Screw drastically enhances the mixing performance in a single-screw extruder. It may be mentioned that the accompanying article, Part II, presents numerical investigation which shows that the chaotic mixing was successfully predicted by numerical simulations. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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