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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (3)
  • Averrhoa carambola  (2)
  • Nonlinear time-lag systems  (2)
  • [abr] FMLP; formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine  (2)
  • [abr] Gi; the inhibitory G protein associated with adenylate cyclase  (2)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-2878
    Keywords: Nonlinear time-lag systems ; linear control constraints ; nonlinear terminal inequality constraints ; feasible direction methods ; accumulation points ; relaxed controls ; relaxed control problems ; necessary conditions for optimality
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract In this paper, we consider a class of time-lag optimal control problems involving control and terminal inequality constraints. A feasible direction algorithm has been obtained by Teo, Wong, and Clements for solving this class of optimal control problems. It was shown that anyL ∞ accumulation points of the sequence of controls generated by the algorithm satisfy a necessary condition for optimality. However, suchL ∞ accumulation points need not exist. The aim of this paper is to prove a convergence result, which ensures that the sequence of controls generated by the algorithm always has accumulation points in the sense of control measure, and these accumulation points satisfy a necessary condition for optimality for the corresponding relaxed problem.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-2878
    Keywords: Nonlinear time-lag systems ; linear control constraints ; nonlinear terminal inequality constraints ; conditional gradient methods ; feasible direction methods ; control parametrization ; initial feasible control ; computational schemes ; finite convergence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract A computational algorithm for a class of time-lag optimal control problems involving control and terminal inequality constraints is presented. The convergence properties of the algorithm is also investigated. To test the algorithm, an example is solved.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2145
    Keywords: Averrhoa carambola ; Self-incompatibility Heterostyly ; Fluorescence microscopy ; Scanning electron microscopy ; Pollen tube ; Polymorphism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Various combinations of intermorph, selfing and intramorph pollinations were carried out in Averrhoa carambola and the pollinated pistils were observed under fluorescence and scanning electron microscopes in time-course experiments. In both compatible and incompatible pollinations, similar behavior of pollen germination and penetration was observed in the first 4 h after pollination. In compatible intermorph pollination, pollen tubes were found at the base of the transmitting tract of the style at 8 h and 24 h after pollination in both the pin and thrum morphs. With thrum flowers, selfing resulted in pollen tubes being uniformly arrested at the junction between the stigmatic and stylar tissues. Penetration of pollen tubes into the upper portion of style was observed in thrum intramorph pollination and, when the second member was treated as the gynoecial tissue under the same pollination, penetration of tubes was further enhanced. Pin flowers, on selfing, resulted in pollen tube penetration farther down the style than was the case with thrum selfing. Intramorph pollination of pin morph behaved in a similar manner to selfing and was not affected by genotypes. Beside the stamen-style dimorphism, the receptive surface of the cob stigma was larger in pin than thrum flowers. While pin pollen was round, thrum pollen was oblong in shape with pin to thrum ratio on the polar axis being 1.2 and on the equatorial axis 0.8. The stigma of pin morph belonged to the dry type, while that of the thrum resembled the wet type.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2145
    Keywords: Averrhoa carambola ; Heterostyly Flower organ-specific proteins ; Electrophoresis Carambola/star-fruit
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Floral organs (tepal, stamen, style, including stigma, and ovary) from immature and mature (1 day prior to anthesis) flower buds of pin and thrum morphs of Averrhoa carambola were subjected to one and two-dimensional IEF/SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and visualized by silver staining. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis of organ extracts from mature floral buds showed a number of protein bands common to all organs in both pin and thrum morphs. In the stamen and style, these bands differed in intensity between the two morphs. Under two-dimensional gels, the differences in protein profiles between the two morphs were more distinct in these organs. When compared with polypeptide spots from leaflets, a total of 14 floral organ-specific polypeptides was detected, the majority appearing in the stamen, followed by the style but none in the ovary. In the stamen, most of these polypeptides were detected in both the pin and thrum morphs. However, in the style, a 72-kDa polypeptide was detected exclusively in the pin morph, and this was also the most abundant floral organ-specific polypeptide. Floral organ-specific polypeptides of 45 kDa (detected in stamens of the thrum morph) and 70 kDa (detected in stamen and style of both morphs) were found to bind concanavalin A.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: latex films ; particle coalescence ; cross-linking ; small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) ; dynamic micromechanical analysis (DMA) ; chain segment mobility ; diffusion coefficient ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Interdiffusion of polymer chains across particle-particle interfaces in latex films is one of the key issues, because this further coalescence process usually controls the cohesive strength of the films. Here we examined local dynamics of polymer chains within latex films and showed that it is related to the occurrence of particle coalescence. For this purpose, structural and dynamic micromechanical properties of partly cross-linked polymer films from styrenebutadiene (SB) copolymer latexes were investigated. The gel fraction of the emulsion copolymers was varied within a large range (15-90%) by adding different chain transfer agents during the polymerization process. The structure of the films was determined using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A qualitative description of the mechanism that likely triggers further coalescence in latex films is given, based on critical disjoining pressure exerted by particle cores on interfacial membranes. In addition, from dynamic micromechanical analysis (DMA) spectra, a key molecular parameter reflecting local segmental mobility was derived. Average diffusion coefficients of polymer segments were calculated and shown to be consistently related to the occurrence of particle coalescence as evidenced from SANS and TEM structural investigations. Finally, the noncovalent physical intermolecular interaction loci, which act as cross-link knots, were shown to play a significant part in the restriction of the coalescence process, increasing the state of constraints encountered by free chain segments embedded in the covalent network. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The high-resolution nmr spectrum of the anticodon hairpin from E. coli tRNAfMet has been obtained at a number of different temperatures. The positions of the resonances from interior Watson-Crick base pairs are well accounted for (within 0.1 ppm) by a semi-empirical ring current shift theory, but the terminal base pairs are susceptible to the exact orientation of adjacent bases in single-stranded regions. From a careful examination of the exact way in which resonances disappear at elevated temperatures, we conclude that melting in the nmr experiments occurs when the lifetime of a base pair is reduced to several milliseconds. On the basis of these experiments we are able to assign an nmr Tm to each individual base pair and these should be useful in interpreting the melting behavior of the intact molecule. An “extra” resonance is observed at ∼11.3 ppm and, on the basis of its position and temperature sensitivity, it is tentatively assigned to the ring nitrogen proton of a “protected” U residue in the anticodon loop. A strong preference for stacking of a nonbase-paired A residue on an adjacent GC base pair is observed even at temperatures in excess of 52°C.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The high-resolution (300 MHz) proton nmr spectrum of E. coli tRNAfMet has been examined in 0.17M NaCl, with and without Mg2+, and at various temperatures. In light of recent studies of other E. coli tRNA and fragments of tRNAfMet, some low field (11-15 ppm) resonances previously assigned to secondary structure base pairs are reassigned to a tertiary structure A14-S4U8 base pair and a protected uridine residue in the anticodon loop. These two resonances and other low field resonances which are assigned to secondary structure base pairs are used to monitor the thermal unfolding of the molecule. In the absence of Mg2+ the tertiary structure base pair is present only to ∼45°C, but in the presence of Mg2+ it remains until at least 70°C. Analysis of the temperature dependence of other low field resonances indicates that the melting of the dihydrouridine stem occurs more or less simultaneously with the loss of tertiary structure. The observation of the resonance from the A14-S4U8 base pair proves that tertiary structure is present in this molecule below 40°C, even in the absence of Mg2+.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    Keywords: [abr] FMLP; formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine ; [abr] G protein; guanine nucleotide binding protein ; [abr] GDP-β-S; guanosine-5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) ; [abr] GTP-γ-S; guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) ; [abr] Gi; the inhibitory G protein associated with adenylate cyclase ; [abr] GppNHp; 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate ; [abr] Gs; the stimulatory G protein associated with adenylate cyclsae ; [abr] PAF; platelet-activating factor ; [abr] cAMP; adenosine-3'-5'-cyclic monophosphate ; [abr] cGMP; guanosine-3'-5'-cyclic monophosphate
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    Keywords: [abr] FMLP; formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine ; [abr] G protein; guanine nucleotide binding protein ; [abr] GDP-β-S; guanosine-5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) ; [abr] GTP-γ-S; guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) ; [abr] Gi; the inhibitory G protein associated with adenylate cyclase ; [abr] GppNHp; 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate ; [abr] Gs; the stimulatory G protein associated with adenylate cyclsae ; [abr] PAF; platelet-activating factor ; [abr] cAMP; adenosine-3'-5'-cyclic monophosphate ; [abr] cGMP; guanosine-3'-5'-cyclic monophosphate
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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