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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (9)
  • ASSOCIATION  (5)
  • SUSCEPTIBILITY  (5)
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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; POPULATION ; RISK ; SITE ; SITES ; GENE ; GENES ; BIOMARKERS ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; HEALTH ; ovarian cancer ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; WOMEN ; REPLICATION ; glycosylation ; ONCOLOGY ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; biomarker ; CANCER-RISK ; Genetic ; single nucleotide
    Abstract: Aberrant glycosylation is a well-described hallmark of cancer. In a previous ovarian cancer case control study that examined polymorphisms in 26 glycosylation-associated genes, we found strong statistical evidence (P = 0.00017) that women who inherited two copies of a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, GALNT1, had decreased ovarian cancer risk. The current study attempted to replicate this observation. The GALNT1 single-nucleotide polymorphism rs17647532 was genotyped in 6,965 cases and 8,377 controls from 14 studies forming the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. The fixed effects estimate per rs17647532 allele was null (odds ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.07). When a recessive model was fit, the results were unchanged. Test for hetero geneity of the odds ratios revealed consistency across the 14 replication sites but significant differences compared with the original study population (P = 0.03). This study underscores the need for replication of putative findings in genetic association studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 19(2); 600-4. (C) 2010 AACR
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20142253
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  • 2
    Keywords: SUSCEPTIBILITY
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death among women. In an effort to understand contributors to disease outcome, we evaluated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) previously associated with ovarian cancer recurrence or survival, specifically in angiogenesis, inflammation, mitosis, and drug disposition genes. METHODS: Twenty-seven SNPs in VHL, HGF, IL18, PRKACB, ABCB1, CYP2C8, ERCC2, and ERCC1 previously associated with ovarian cancer outcome were genotyped in 10,084 invasive cases from 28 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium with over 37,000-observed person-years and 4,478 deaths. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between candidate SNPs and ovarian cancer recurrence or survival with and without adjustment for key covariates. RESULTS: We observed no association between genotype and ovarian cancer recurrence or survival for any of the SNPs examined. CONCLUSIONS: These results refute prior associations between these SNPs and ovarian cancer outcome and underscore the importance of maximally powered genetic association studies. Impact: These variants should not be used in prognostic models. Alternate approaches to uncovering inherited prognostic factors, if they exist, are needed. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 22(5); 987-. (c)2013 AACR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23513043
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  • 3
    Keywords: ASSOCIATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; VARIANTS ; IDENTIFICATION ; METAANALYSIS ; LOCUS
    Abstract: The presence of regulatory T cells (Treg) in solid tumors is known to play a role in patient survival in ovarian cancer and other malignancies. We assessed inherited genetic variations via 749 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 25 Treg-associated genes (CD28, CTLA4, FOXP3, IDO1, IL10, IL10RA, IL15, 1L17RA, IL23A, IL23R, IL2RA, IL6, IL6R, IL8, LGALS1, LGALS9, MAP3K8, STAT5A, STAT5B, TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFBR1, TGRBR2, and TGFBR3) in relation to ovarian cancer survival. We analyzed genotype and overall survival in 10,084 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, including 5,248 high-grade serous, 1,452 endometrioid, 795 clear cell, and 661 mucinous carcinoma cases of European descent across 28 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). The strongest associations were found for endometrioid carcinoma and IL2RA SNPs rs11256497 [HR, 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.22-1.64; P = 5.7 x 10(-6)], rs791587 (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.17-1.57; P = 6.2 x 10(-5)), rs2476491 (HR, = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.19-1.64; P = 5.6 x 10(-5)), and rs10795763 (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.17-1.57; P = 7.9 x 10(-5)), and for clear cell carcinoma and CTLA4 SNP rs231775 (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.54-0.82; P = 9.3 x 10(-5)) after adjustment for age, study site, population stratification, stage, grade, and oral contraceptive use. The rs231775 allele associated with improved survival in our study also results in an amino acid change in CTLA4 and previously has been reported to be associated with autoimmune conditions. Thus, we found evidence that SNPs in genes related to Tregs seem to play a role in ovarian cancer survival, particularly in patients with clear cell and endometrioid epithelial ovarian cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24764580
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; PROSTATE ; RISK ; BIOMARKERS ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST ; CONSORTIUM ; MULTIPLE
    Abstract: Background: We previously reported an association between rs2660753, a prostate cancer susceptibility polymorphism, and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC; OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-1.4, P-trend = 0.01) that showed a stronger association with the serous histological subtype (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.5, P-trend = 0.003). Methods: We sought to replicate this association in 12 other studies comprising 4,482 cases and 6,894 controls of white non-Hispanic ancestry in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Results: No evidence for an association with all cancers or serous cancers was observed in a combined analysis of data from the replication studies (all: OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.9-1.1, P-trend = 0.61; serous: OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.9-1.1, P-trend = 0.85) or from the combined analysis of discovery and replication studies (all: OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 1.0-1.1, P-trend = 0.28; serous: OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.2, P-trend = 0.11). There was no evidence for statistical heterogeneity in ORs across the studies. Conclusions: Although rs2660753 is a strong prostate cancer susceptibility polymorphism, the association with another hormonally related cancer, invasive EOC, is not supported by this replication study. Impact: Our findings, based on a larger sample size, emphasize the importance of replicating potentially promising genetic risk associations.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21415361
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  • 5
    Keywords: RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; statistics ; inflammation ; CARD11 ; FAMILY MEMBERS ; BCL10
    Abstract: Survival in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is influenced by the host immune response, yet the key genetic determinants of inflammation and immunity that affect prognosis are not known. The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factor family plays an important role in many immune and inflammatory responses, including the response to cancer. We studied common inherited variation in 210 genes in the NF-kappaB family in 10,084 patients with invasive EOC (5,248 high-grade serous, 1,452 endometrioid, 795 clear cell, and 661 mucinous) from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Associations between genotype and overall survival were assessed using Cox regression for all patients and by major histology, adjusting for known prognostic factors and correcting for multiple testing (threshold for statistical significance, P 〈 2.5 x 10(-5)). Results were statistically significant when assessed for patients of a single histology. Key associations were with caspase recruitment domain family, member 11 (CARD11) rs41324349 in patients with mucinous EOC [HR, 1.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.41-2.35; P = 4.13 x 10(-6)] and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 13B (TNFRSF13B) rs7501462 in patients with endometrioid EOC (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.56-0.82; P = 2.33 x 10(-5)). Other associations of note included TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) rs17250239 in patients with high-grade serous EOC (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77-0.92; P = 6.49 x 10(-5)) and phospholipase C, gamma 1 (PLCG1) rs11696662 in patients with clear cell EOC (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.26-0.73; P = 4.56 x 10(-4)). These associations highlight the potential importance of genes associated with host inflammation and immunity in modulating clinical outcomes in distinct EOC histologies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24740199
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; CANCER CELLS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; CELL ; PROSTATE ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; VARIANTS ; DISCOVERY ; STAGE ; ASSAY ; ovarian cancer ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; genetics ; SNP ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; cancer risk ; GENOTYPES ; CANCER-CELLS ; genotyping ; telomerase ; REPLICATION ; microenvironment ; case-control study ; ASSOCIATIONS ; VARIANT ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; SCIENCE ; SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; GENOTYPE ; LOCUS ; INCREASED RISK ; CANCER-RISK ; OVARIAN ; 8Q24 ; MYC ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; CONSORTIUM ; Genetic ; CONTRIBUTE ; single nucleotide ; INCESSANT OVULATION
    Abstract: We hypothesized that variants in genes expressed as a consequence of interactions between ovarian cancer cells and the host micro-environment could contribute to cancer susceptibility. We therefore used a two-stage approach to evaluate common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 173 genes involved in stromal epithelial interactions in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). In the discovery stage, cases with epithelial ovarian cancer (n = 675) and controls (n = 1,162) were genotyped at 1,536 SNPs using an Illumina GoldenGate assay. Based on Positive Predictive Value estimates, three SNPs-PODXL rs1013368, ITGA6 rs13027811, and MMP3 rs522616-were selected for replication using TaqMan genotyping in up to 3,059 serous invasive cases and 8,905 controls from 16 OCAC case-control studies. An additional 18 SNPs with Pper-allele〈0.05 in the discovery stage were selected for replication in a subset of five OCAC studies (n = 1,233 serous invasive cases; n = 3,364 controls). The discovery stage associations in PODXL, ITGA6, and MMP3 were attenuated in the larger replication set (adj. Pper-allele 〉= 0.5). However genotypes at TERT rs7726159 were associated with ovarian cancer risk in the smaller, five-study replication study (Pper-allele=0.03). Combined analysis of the discovery and replication sets for this TERT SNP showed an increased risk of serous ovarian cancer among non-Hispanic whites [adj. ORper-allele 1.14 (1.04-1.24) p = 0.003]. Our study adds to the growing evidence that, like the 8q24 locus, the telomerase reverse transcriptase locus at 5p15.33, is a general cancer susceptibility locus
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20628624
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: charge transfer complexes ; carbazole-containing polyimines ; electron-acceptors ; solid-state NMR ; decomplexation ; complex conformation ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Polyimines containing trans-1,2-bis-9-carbazolylcyclobutane (CzD) and a spacer of a variable number of methylene groups (3-10 and 12) were synthesized from the diformylated CzD and the corresponding aliphatic diamine. The charge transfer complexes (CTCs) of these polyimines with electron-acceptors such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF) were analyzed in solution and in the solid state using electronic and CP-MAS 13C-NMR spectra. Model studies indicate that TCNE does not form a stable complex in the solid state with CzD, while TNF forms a complex in the molar ratio of 1 : 1. Solid-state CTCs of the polyimines with either acceptor retain some solvent which helps in formation of some supramolecular organization. After the solvent is eliminated the CTCs are amorphous and do not show decomplexation. Cross-polarization experiments and T1ρH measurements in the solid-state NMR spectra demonstrate that the polymer CTCs are very mobile, with a solution-like behavior. © 1992 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Significant adsorption of polystyrene-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-PEO) diblock copolymers onto PS latex particles in an aqueous dispersion is accomplished through suppression of micelle formation by adding tetrahydrofuran (THF) as a cosolvent. We add THF, a good solvent for the micelle core, to weaken the micelle and allow free chains for adsorption to the colloidal particles. Choosing a PS colloidal particle as the adsorption substrate (thus the adsorbed PS block can fully wet the subsurface), we eliminate the complications which arise from micelle formation on the colloidal surface. Since the PS particles swell in the mixed solvent, the adsorbed PS block may penetrate into the swollen latex core, which is favored for entropic reasons. A subsequent water quench of the system to a low THF solution shrinks the PS particle to its original size while retaining most of the adsorbed polymers. The adsorbed chains cannot be removed by adding surfactants or raising temperature to 90°C, indicating that the adsorbed layer is tightly attached to the surface due to kinetic hinderance of the chains in a confined environment. Neutron scattering experiments is being carried out to settle whether the PS penetrates the PS particle. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: polyelectrolytes, PEO-based, conductivity enhancement by mixed salts in solutions of ; conductivity, ionic, of PEO-based polyelectrolytes, mixed-salt enhancement of ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: An unusual conductivity enhancement occurs in PEO-based ZnBr2/LiBr electrolytes of composition, [xZnBr2 + (1 - x)LiBr](PEO)16 with x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00. The conductivity of the mixed-salt electrolytes is higher than that of either pure salt electrolyte. The highest conductivity, observed for x = 0.5, is two orders of magnitude higher than that of pure LiBr(PEO)16 and one order higher than ZnBr2(PEO)16. In contrast, the conductivity of mixed Mg (CIO4)2/LiCIO4 electrolytes, [xMg(CIO4)2 + (1 - x) LiCIO4](PEO)16 where x = 0.00, 0.20, 0.50, 0.80, 1.00, increases monotonically with the mole fraction of the higher conductivity component, LiCIO4(PEO)16. The conductivity and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results suggest that the conductivity enhancement in the ZnBr2/LiBr electrolytes results from a change in charge carrier type and concentration, whereas the conductivity change in the Mg(CIO4)2/LiCIO4 electrolytes arises from a change in the microscopic viscosity of the electrolytes. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Fibers of poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA) have a fibrillar morphology, the individual fibrils having a high proportion of extended chains passing through periodic defect layers. A pleat structure is superimposed. The fibers are fully crystalline (within the limits of determination) with a small fraction of randomly oriented crystalline material. The major distinction between PPTA and conventional fibers lies in the high level of extended chains passing through the defect layers of the former structure. These extended chains result in crystallographic register being maintained between adjacent ordered zones. Quantitatively, a measure of this order is obtained from a comparison of the correlation length, obtained from meridional x-ray peak widths, and the defect spacing. In conventional fibers the defect spacing, i.e., long period, is longer than the correlation length (i.e., crystal size). In PPTA, the analog of the long period, the defect spacing (about 35 nm) is smaller than the correlation length, which is over 80 nm.
    Additional Material: 18 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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