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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (4)
  • Non-linear viscoelasticity  (1)
  • culture  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1435-1528
    Keywords: Key words Fumed silica ; Colloidal suspensions ; Non-linear viscoelasticity ; Rheological models
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Suspensions of fumed silica exhibit a wide range of rheological properties depending on the nature and magnitude of the interparticle forces. In a non-polar fluid, the particles interact through hydrogen bonding and can form a three-dimensional network. The microstructure formation is responsible for the non-linear viscoelastic behavior of fumed silica suspensions, even at very small strain. These non-linear rheological properties have been studied in small amplitude oscillatory experiments as a function of particle size, surface treatment of particles, suspending medium polarity and solids concentration. The non-linear viscoelastic behavior is characterized by a non-sinusoidal waveform of the signal response. For suspensions in a non-polar fluid, both the elastic and the loss moduli are shown to be sensitive to the strain amplitude: the elastic modulus is decreasing with increasing strain whereas the loss moduli is initially increasing with strain. We have chosen to examine the dissipated energy which is clearly related to the breakup of the suspension structure. A comparison of model predictions and the experimental data shows the limitations of these models, recently proposed in the literature to describe the behavior of colloidal suspensions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    Advances in Polymer Technology 6 (1986), S. 407-407 
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Linear low-density polyethylenes (LLDPES) and polypropylene (PP) have been recovered from solutions of varying initial polymer concentration. Melts of these polymers show significant reductions in viscosity and elasticity, and the effects are attributed to changes in the entanglement density of the polymer. Measurements of entanglement densities have been attempted from experimental values of the apparent zero-shear melt viscosity. These indicate that solution treatments in trichlorobenzene at 135°C reduce the entanglement density more effectively in PP than in LLDPE. In all cases the observed effects are reversible by annealing at elevated temperatures. Analytic data point to entanglement changes as the true origin of changes in viscoelastic properties, since solution treatments produce no changes in molecular weights and weight distributions, and the samples tested are free of solvent residues.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Mechanical properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE) extended to draw ratios in the 20-40 range have been determined and compared with corresponding properties of the polymers containing particulates including rutile, carbon black, iron oxide, and mica. Shrinkage of drawn structures was studied to temperatures near the fusion of the polymer host. The degree of interaction at polymer/additive interfaces was varied by surface coating certain of the solids with standard coupling agents. Solids were found to increase tensile moduli and to decrease shrinkage, particularly at higher exposure temperatures. The magnitude of changes due to the presence of solids was shown to depend on the apparent interaction at contacts between host and additive. In a dispersion-force matrix, like HDPE, benefits were optimized when the particulates were amphoteric or neutral, rather than having pronounced acid or base interaction potentials.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: interfacial tension ; breaking thread ; polyamide ; polyethylene ; interface ; modifier morphology ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Compared to the dynamic mixing process used in melt blending operations, most techniques for measuring the interfacial tension can be considered as virtually static. For this reason, in order to measure the interfacial tension of an A-B immiscible system in the presence of an interfacial modifier, the problem of migrating the modifier to the interface is a central issue. In this study, the influence of the addition of an interfacial modifier, a polyethylene copolymer ionomer, on the interfacial tension between two high-density polyethylenes and a polyamide is investigated. The breaking thread method is used and the interfacial tension is measured as a function of ionomer content. In order to enhance the likelihood of placing the modifier in closer proximity to the interface, various sample preparations are compared. In all cases, the interfacial tension significantly drops with increasing ionomer content and tends to a limiting value. It is shown, however, that the preparation of the system for the breaking thread experiment via coextrusion using a conical die brings the modifier in closest proximity to the interface. With this approach an additional 1.45 times reduction of the interfacial tension at 10% compatibilizer concentration (based on the mass of HDPE) is observed compared to the classical technique of preparation. Confirmation of this effect is demonstrated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy where analysis of the thread surface of the system prepared by coextrusion indicates a more than fourfold enrichment of interfacial modifier. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 1947-1958, 1998
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: plant cell ; Catharanthus roseus ; suspension ; culture ; mixing ; helical ribbon impeller ; bioreactor ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A double helical-ribbon impeller (HRI) bioreactor with a 11-L working volume was developed to grow high-density Catharanthus roseus cell suspensions. The rheological behavior of this suspension was found to be shear-thinning for concentrations higher than 12 to 15 g DW · L-1. A granulated agar suspension of similar rheological properties was used as a model fluid for these suspensions. Mixing studies revealed that surface baffling and bottom profiling of the bioreactor and impeller speeds of 60 to 150 rpm ensured uniform mixing of suspensions. The HRI power requirement was found to increase singnificantly for agar suspensions higher than 13 g DW · L-1, in conjunction with the effective viscosity increase. Oxygen transfer studies showed high apparent surface oxygen transfer coefficients (kLa ∼4 to 45 h-1) from agar suspensions of 30 g DW · L-1 to water and for mixing speeds ranging from 120 to 150 rpm. These high surface kIa values were ascribed to the flow pattern of this bioreactor configuration combined with surface bubble generation and entrainment in the liquid phase caused by the presence of the surface baffles. High-density C. roseus cell suspension cultures were successfully grown in this bioreactor without gas sparging. Up to 70% oxygen enrichment of the head space was required to ensure sufficient oxygen supply to the cultures so that dissolved oxygen concentration would remain above the critical level (≥10% air saturation). The best mixing speed was 120 rpm. These cultures grew at the same rate (∼0.4 d-1) and attained the same high biomass concentrations (∼25 to 27 g DW · L-1, 450 to 500 g filtered wet biomass · L-1, and 92% to 100% settled wet biomass volume) as shake flask cultures. The scale-up potential of this bioreactor configuration is discussed.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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