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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (4)
  • emulsion liquid membrane  (2)
  • DNA probe assay  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1436-5073
    Keywords: electrogenerated Chemiluminescence ; Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ; detector ; flow injection analysis ; HPLC ; biosensing ; immunoassay ; DNA probe assay
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Ru(bpy) 3 2+ electrogenerated chemiluminescence (CL) has rapidly gained importance as a sensitive and selective detection method in analytical science. The Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL is observed when Ru(bpy) 3 3+ reacts with Ru(bpy) 3 + and yields an excited state Ru(bpy) 3 2+* . ECL emission can also be obtained when a variety of oxidants and reductants react with the reduced or oxidized forms of Ru(bpy) 3 2+ . Either the reductant or the oxidant can be treated as an analyte. The Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL is used as a detection method for the determination of oxalate and a variety of amine-containing analytes without derivatization in flowing streams such as flow injection and HPLC. When the ECL format is used as a detector for HPLC, unstable post-column reagent addition can often be eliminated and, the problems of both sample dilution and band broadening can be avoided because the Ru(bpy) 3 3+ species are generatedin situ in the reaction/observation flow cell. Since NADH is sensitively detected with the Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL, many clinically important analytes can be detected by coupling them to dehydrogenase enzymes that utilize β-nicotinamide adenine cofactors to convert NAD+ to NADH. Ru(bpy) 3 2+ -derivatives are used as CL labels for immunoassay and PCR assay with Ru(bpy) 3 2+ /tripropylamine ECL system. The Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL label can be sensitively determined at subpicomolar concentrations, along with an extremely wide dynamic range of greater than six orders of magnitude. Furthermore, it can eliminate disposal and lifetime problems inherent in radio immunoassays. In this paper, basic principles of the Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL are discussed. In addition, analytical applications of the Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL are illustrated with examples.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: polyethylene oxide (PEO) ; sulfonated PEO ; surface modification ; segmented polyurethane ; platelet adhesion ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Polyethylene oxide (PEO) surfaces were prepared by the addition of PEO- and sulfonated PEO-containing amphiphilic block copolymers as surface-modifying additives in a segmented polyurethane (PU). PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers (Pluronics) with different PEO chain lengths (from 2 to 80) were used as additives. The prepared film surfaces were characterized by the measurement of dynamic water contact angles and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. It was observed that the PU films containing 10 wt % of PEO additives were surface-saturated with the additives regardless of their PEO chain length, but the PEO chains were more projected from the film surfaces containing the additives with longer PEO chains. The water absorption of the films increased largely with the increasing PEO chain length of the additives. The addition of PEO additives produced film surfaces that were in a gel-like state. The films demonstrated some extraction of the PEO additives. However, the additives with higher molecular weights were entrapped more stably into the PU matrix. The mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation) of the films were changed by the addition of PEO additives, but the differences were not significant compared to the control PU. The platelet adhesion on the film surfaces decreased with increasing PEO chain length of the additives. The film surface containing additives with long PEO chains (chain length of 80) was particularly effective in preventing platelet adhesion. The effect of negatively charged sulfonate groups on the prevention of platelet adhesion appeared only on the film surfaces containing additives with short PEO chains. For longer PEO chains, the chain mobility effect was more dominant than the negative charge effect on the prevention of platelet adhesion. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 40, 314-323, 1998.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0268-2575
    Keywords: penicillin G ; emulsion liquid membrane ; decomposition ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: To confirm the applicability for the extraction of penicillin G by an emulsion liquid membrane (ELM), the degree of decomposition of penicillin G during extraction was theoretically calculated. Decomposition was less than 1% provided that the initial sodium carbonate concentration in the internal phase was correctly determined, which proved the applicability of the ELM process. The procedure to determine the initial carbonate concentration in the internal phase was also described in order that the pH in the internal phase should be within the relatively stable range for penicillin G at the end of the extraction.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0268-2575
    Keywords: penicillin G ; emulsion liquid membrane ; optimum extraction conditions ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Penicillin G extraction by an emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) was investigated. The effects of surfactants, diluents, and carrier mixtures, together with their combined effects on the initial extraction rate and the emulsion stability were examined. Surfactants, diluents, and carriers used were Span80 (sorbitan monooleate)/ECA4360J (nonionic polyamine), n-butyl acetate/kerosene, and DOA (dioctylamine)/Amberlite LA-2 (secondary amine), respectively. The optimum extraction conditions were found to be 20% (v/v) of Span80 in ECA4360J as a surfactant, kerosene as a diluent and Amberlite LA-2 as a carrier.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0887-6258
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: poly(propargylamine) ; poly(1,1-diethylpropargylamine) ; polyacetylene derivatives ; transition metal catalysts ; organoaluminum cocatalysts ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Some polyacetylene derivatives containing an amine functional group were prepared by the polymerization of propargylamine (PA) and 1,1-diethylpropargylamine (DEPA) with various transition metal catalysts. In the polymerization of PA, Mo-based catalysts were more effective than that of W-based catalysts, and organoaluminum compounds, especially EtAlCl2, were found to be very effective cocatalysts. In the polymerization of DEPA, Mo-and W-based catalyst systems showed a similar catalytic activity. The polymerization easily proceeded in polar solvents such as nitrobenzene and DMF as well as nonpolar aromatic solvents such as chlorobenzene, toluene, etc. The resulting poly(PA) and poly(DEPA) were insoluble in organic solvents regardless of polymerization catalysts but the polymers were found to be stable to air oxidation. Thermogravimetric analyses and thermal transitions of poly(PA) and poly(DEPA) were also studied. © 1992 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: poly(1-ethynylcyclohexene) ; conjugated polymer ; transition metal catalysts ; organoaluminum compounds ; thermal property ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 1-Ethynylcyclohexene, an acetylene derivative having cyclohexenyl substituent, was polymerized by various W- and Mo-based catalysts. WCl6-EtAlCl2 catalyst system was found to be very effective for this polymerization. The effects of the monomer-to-catalyst mol ratio, the initial monomer concentration, the temperature, and the cocatalysts for the polymerization of 1-ethynylcyclohexene by WCl6 were investigated. The catalytic activity of Mo-based catalysts was found to be similar to that of W-based catalysts. The polymer structure was identified to have a conjugated polymer backbone carrying a cyclohexenyl substituent. The resulting polymers were light-brown powder and completely soluble in aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbon solvents such as chlorobenzene, benzene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, etc. Studies of the thermal properties and morphology of poly(1-ethynylcyclohexene) were also carried out. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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