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  • Articles  (7)
  • Polymer and Materials Science  (5)
  • casein proteins  (1)
  • chymotrypsin  (1)
  • 1990-1994  (7)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Electrolytes are often added to a gel-swelling medium under the assumption that the important conditions which characterize swelling rates are the solution pH and ionic strength, with little emphasis on the nature of the electrolyte. Previous research by Siegel et al. has indicated that the presence of the un-ionized acidic form of an electrolyte buffer is a primary rate determinant for swelling of a polybase gel. A systematic swelling study on two separate gels, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate copolymerized with methacrylic acid (HEMA/MAA) and N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (HEMA/DMA), has been performed to investigate the influence of the concentration of the un-ionized buffer by three principal factors: (1) total buffer concentration, (2) solution pH, and (3) buffer pKa. Swelling and deswelling kinetics were obtained. In the presence of an electrolyte buffer, a dramatic swelling rate increase is observed for the HEMA gels, with substantial gains in rate obtained as total buffer concentration rises. Results also emphasize that to enhance swelling kinetics, the pH must be such that the buffer is essentially un-ionized.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: For some binary systems, an extended Flory-Huggins equation is applicable to both vaporliquid equilibria (VLE) and liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) using the same adjustable parameters. New LLE and VLE data are reported for polystyrene (PS) (MW = 100,000)/cyclohexane and for poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) (MW = 8,000)/water. Experimental results for the PS/cyclohexane system agree well with the semiempirical model, whereas those for PEG/water do not, probably because, for PEG/water, the temperature range of the VLE data is about 55°C lower than that of the LLE data. Excellent fits were obtained for our previously published experimental results for PS/cyclohexane (upper critical solution temperature, UCST), PS/ethyl acetate (lower critical solution temperature, LCST), PS/tert-butyl acetate and PS/methyl acetate (both UCST and LCST), and PEG/water (closed-loop). The semiempirical model also fits well with new data obtained for the polymer blend PS/poly(vinyl methyl ether). © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Hydrogles, sensitive to pH, were prepared by copolymerizing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) with 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMA). The mole fraction of the DMA monomer present during synthesis was fixed at 0.3, while the volume fraction of total monomer varied from 0.29 (I) to 1.0 (II). Swelling equilibria were measured in citrate of phosphate buffer for pH from 3.0 to 7.6 Swelling of the hydrogels depends on the volume fraction monomer present during synthesis, solution, pH, and identity of the buffer, Hydrogel I reached a four-fold larger swelling ratio (g swollen hydrogel/g dry hydrogel) in pH 3.0 citrate buffer, as compared to hydrogel II. Experimental results are interpreted on the basis of ideal Donnan equilibria. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Continuous thermodynamics is used to calculate liquid-liquid equilibria in a ternary system containing polydisperse polymer, one good solvent and one poor solvent (antisolvent). The polymer has a semiinfinite molecular-weight distribution which can be described by a gamma distribution. From Flory-Huggins theory, the logarithm of the distribution ratio of the polymer is a linear function of the molecular weight. Because the distribution of polymer between the two liquid phases is very sensitive to the choice of binary Flory parameters. The Flory parameters must be fitted to the ternary data. Results are given for the system benzene, ethanol, and polydisperse polystyrene.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: reverse micelle ; solubilization ; light scattering ; chymotrypsin ; LADH ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Solubilization properties of α-chymotrypsin and alcohol dehydrogenase (LADH) in reverse micelles are reported for three different solubilization techniques. The solubilization properties for these two proteins depend on the method used for protein addition. The addition of a dry protein powder to a reverse-micelle-containing organic phase does not appreciably solubilize the protein until the diameter of the reverse micelle is similar to that of the protein. However, when an aqueous protein solution is injected an organic phase, protein solubilization is not strongly dependent on micelle size. For chymotrypsin, multiple protein occupancy occurs at large micelle size, with as many as 11 chymotrypsin molecules solubilized in one reverse micelle. The solubilization of chymotrypsin using a phase-transter technique with a positively charged surfactant follows the expected traned based on protein-surfactant electrostatic interactions. When a negatively charged sufactants is used for phase transfer, at low pH the solubilization data do not fit this electrostatic interaction mechanism. In this case, proteinsurfactant aggregation may be occurring at the aqueousorganic interface.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: bioconversions ; hydrolysis ; casein proteins ; catalysis ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Partition coefficients in poly(ethylene glycol)/dextran aqueous two-phase systems are reported for mixed-casein and its components, α, β and κ casein. Rates of casein proteolysis by α-chymotrypsin and by trypsin are reported in single-phase and aqueous two-phase reactor systems. The advantages resulting from selective partitioning of substrates, enzymes, and products are examined in terms of relative volumetric reaction rates.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0009-286X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: From Apollo to Prometheus and Hercules: Objectives and methods of the chemical process engineering. The objectives and the methods of process engineering can be illustrated by comparison with three figures from Greek mythology: Apollo, the spirit and patron of scholarship, particularly philosophy; Prometheus, visionary in the application of ideas, who stole fire from the gods to use it in the service of mankind; and Hercules, who on behalf of all slayed the dragons which tormented mankind. Classical philosophy provides the historical foundation for process engineering (rational thinking which brings order to the chaos of nature); in the same way, contemporary philosophy can serve as the basis for the definition of the role of process engineering in present day society. The central message of modern philosophy (hermeneutics) is the softening of boundaries and devaluation of differences in methods of cognition; reconciliation between the sciences and society, and emphasis of horizontal rather than vertical thinking. These philosophical concepts have direct implications for the training of process engineers and for the development of new chemical products and processes.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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