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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (8)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0721-3115
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Mononitro-, dinitro-, trinitro- and tetranitro-derivatives of 1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)naphthalene have been synthesised using a variety of nitration procedures. The mononitro- and dinitro-derivatives have also been synthesised from 1-bromonaphthalene and 1-nitronaphthalene via a combination of bromination, nitration and Ullmann reactions.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0721-3115
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The nitration of 1-methyl-4-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)naphthalene (1) and of mono- and dinitro-derivatives of (1) has been studied with a view to obtaining precursors of high energy compounds possessing thermal stability. A number of nitro-, dinitro- and trinitro-derivatives of (1) have been synthesized. Some of these derivatives have also been synthesized from 4-bromo-1-methylnaphthalene by a combination of nitration and Ullmann reactions.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0721-3115
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper presents a general HPLC method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of explosives. The method has successfully been tested on the following explosives: RDX, 2,4,6-TNT, 2,4-DNT, HMX, PETN, Tetryl, HNS, TNAZ and HNIW. The method permits a nine component explosive mixture analysis in less than 10 minutes. For HNIW and TNAZ the detection limit was less than 5 ng.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1045-4861
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Median nerve regeneration was studied in 30 adult primates after repair by microsurgical suture or tubulization with a nonwoven, bioabsorbable, polyglycolic acid device. The two methods were compared electrophysiologically and histologically 6 and 12 months after repair. The electrophysiology included recording of electrically evoked compound action potentials and subsequent determination of threshold, conduction velocity, amplitude, and area above the baseline for each component. Measurements were obtained before nerve transection and at the time of biopsy by stimulating both proximal and distal to the transection site. Analysis of all electrophysiological parameters revealed no statistically significant differences (p 〈 0.05) between the two repair techniques. Histopathology included examination of cross sections proximal and distal to the repair sites and longitudinal sections through the coaptation site. End organs (Meissner's and Pacinian corpuscles and muscle) were sectioned to determine the degree of reinnervation. No significant differences between the repair techniques were observed by histological analysis of these sections. These evaluations indicated that the tubulization repair technique produced results comparable to that of the suture technique. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A series of PVC/NBR blends with varying acrylonitrile (AN) content in the NBR has been studied in uniaxial tension creep tests. The tests have been carried out at 21.5 ± 0.5°C covering creep times from 10 to 1000 sec. NBR with low AN content, having poor compatibility with PVC, gives the blends with higher compliance and increased time dependence of the compliance. A higher AN content in the NBR gives the blends with the opposite properties when the NBR is added in small amounts. NBR with 40 wt-% AN is found to act as an antiplasticizer giving minimal creep compliance when 7 wt-% NBR is added. The antiplasticization reveals a considerably increased stress level at which the transition from approximatively linear to marked nonlinear viscoelasticity occurs and a decreased stress dependence of the creep compliance in the nonlinear viscoelastic range. Since the antiplasticization is also associated with a suppression of the β-transition mechanism, the results provide a demonstration of the importance of β-mechanism in the stress activated processes responsible for the appearance of nonlinear viscoelasticity in solid polymers.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0449-2951
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: High molecular weight polyacrolein reacts readily with a variety of aldehyde reagents to form soluble derivatives. The reactions proceed at a measureable rate at room temperature when suitably catalyzed by acid or base. Gentle warming is occasionally required to attain useful reaction rates. The reactions of polyacrolein are conveniently divided into those involving (a) the aldehyde function alone or (b) the active hydrogen alpha to the carbonyl. The first class includes reactions with HCN, NaHSO3 (SO2), Na2S2O4, primary and secondary amines, alcohols, thiols, and aqueous based. The second type reaction includes additions to the α-carbanion and oxidations involving chain scission. Depending on the reagent employed and conditions, reaction of polyacrolein gives open-chain derivatives or the 2,6-disubstituted tetrahydropyran structure which is present to a large extent in hydrated polyacrolein. Base-catalyzed disproportionation of polyacrolein yields a polymethylol polycarboxylic acid via internal Cannizzaro reaction. In the presence of formaldehyde, α-methylol groups are introduced during the disproportionation.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The DNA interaction of derivatives of ellipticine with heterocyclic ring systems with three, four, or five rings and a dimethylaminoethyl side chain was studied. Optical spectroscopy of drug complexes with calf thymus DNA, poly [(dA-dT) · (dA-dT)], or poly [(dG-dC) · (dG-dC)] showed a 10 nm bathochromic shift of the light absorption bands of the pentacyclic and tetracyclic compounds upon binding to the nucleic acids, which indicates binding by intercalation. For the tricyclic compound a smaller shift of 1-3 nm was observed upon binding to the nucleic acids.Flow linear dichroism studies show that the geometry of all complexes is consistent with intercalation of the ring system, except for the DNA and poly [(dG-dC) · (dG-dC)] complexes of the tricyclic compound, where the average angle between the drug molecular plane and the DNA helix axis was found to be 65°.One-dimensional 1H-nmr spectroscopy was used to study complexes between d(CGCGATCGCG)2 and the tricyclic and pentacyclic compounds. The results on the pentacyclic compound show nonselective broadening due to intermediate chemical exchange of most oligonucleotide resonances upon drug binding. The imino proton resonances are in slow chemical exchange, and new resonances with upfield shifts approaching 1 ppm appear upon drug binding, which supports intercalative binding of the pentacyclic compound. The results on the tricyclic compound show more rapid binding kinetics and very selective broadening of resonances. The data suggest that the tricyclic compound is in an equilibrium between intercalation and minor groove binding, with a preference to bind close to the AT base pairs with the side chain residing in the minor groove. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Measurements of mechanical damping (tan δ) in the temperature range of -120° to +120°C at 110 Hz, of uniaxial tensile creep at 25.0° ± 0.5°C covering creep times from 10 to 1000 sec, and of impact strength at 21°C have been carried out for a series of physical PVC/PCL blends in the composition range of 0%-12% by weight of PCL in the blend. With increasing PCL content in the blend, the α-peak of PVC was shifted to lower temperatures and became broadened. The β-peak of PVC was also shifted to lower temperatures and was markedly suppressed. The tensile creep compliance of approximately linear viscoelasticity showed a maximum decrease of 10%, and the impact resistance was reduced 3.5 times when 5% and 12% by weight of PCL, respectively, was blended with PVC. There was also a considerable increase (25%) in stress level at which the transition from approximately linear to markedly nonlinear viscoelasticity occurred when up to 5% by weight of PCL was added to the PVC. These results are attributed to the antiplasticizing effect of PCL on PVC. They support the importance of β-mechanism in the stress-activated processes proposed to be responsible for the appearance of nonlinear viscoelasticity in glassy polymers, and they are in agreement with the pseudocrosslinking concept of antiplasticization. By comparing the antiplasticization behavior of PVC/PCL blends with that of PVC/DOA and PVC/DOS from reported data, it was possible to obtaing an idea of the level of compatibility in the PVC/PCL blends. The results suggest that PCL is partially compatible with PVC.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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