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  • 1
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A computer program SAINT has been developed for the investigation of the structure and for the prediction of minimum-energy structure of polysaccharide-polysaccharide complexes. The energy minimization is carried out on internal geometrical parameters - namely bond angles, torsional angles, and five parameters describing the mutual orientations of polysaccharide chains. For this purpose, the nonderivative method of conjugated directions is used. This procedure was applied to computer modeling of an idealized model of the binary gelling κ-carrageenan and galactomannan system. It is shown that the interaction between two chains influences the structure of the individual polysaccharide molecule and that in the minimum-energy structures of the complex, the conformation of the chains does not correspond to the lowest energy.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0025-116X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: 13C NMR measurements were taken on cooling of aqueous solutions of N-octyl-D-gluconamide to follow the process of gelation. On cooling from 90°C gelation sharply occurs at 60-62°C. In the pre-stage of gelation at 64°C an aggregated species, probably a dimeric form of octylgluconamide, is detected. Additional signals for sugar carbons C-1, C-4 and C-6 indicate hydrogen bonding. As a side reaction conversion of the octylgluconamide to the ammonium salt takes place. Assignments of the new signals were made with the ammonium salt formed from D-gluconamide and the corresponding octylammonium salt of gluconic acid. When the solution of octylgluconamide is kept at 64°C for a longer period, octylgluconamide, free and aggregated, and its ammonium salt coexist. At 64°C relaxation times t1 of the sugar carbons corresponding to the octylgluconamide species are much shorter than those of the salt, indicating a decrease of the mobility of the sugar carbons of the former in the pre-stage of gelation.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Glycerol specifically deuterated at C-1, C-2, or C-3 was prepared and used for the biosynthesis of bacterial cellulose with Acetobacter xylinum.The material obtained were converted into glucitol hexaacetate and analyzed by 250-MHz nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The spectra indicated that the protons of the C-3 position of the starting glycerol were incorporated as substituents of the C-6 and C-1 positions of the cellulose. Similarly, protons of the C-2 and C-5 positions of the cellulose came essentially from water and the protons bonded at the C-3 and C-4 positions of the cellulose from protons bonded to C-1 of the starting glycerol.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Small-angle x-ray scattering using a synchroton x-ray monochromatic radiation was carried out to investigate the structure of different polysaccharides in aqueous medium: carob galactomannan, κ-carrageenan in the sol and in the gel states, and κ-carrageenan-carob galactomannan mixed systems. Experiments performed on a 0.2% carob galactomannan solutions confirmed that this polysaccharide behaved as a neutral polymer in a good solvent. For K-carrageenan in the / state, either in the sodium form or in the cesium form, a maximum in the scattering curve was evidenced. Position and height of this maximum changed with K-carrageenan concentration in close agreement with what is expected for wormlike polyelectrolyte in semidilute solution. In the case of k-carrageenan in the gel state, in the cesium form, scattering curves also exhibited a maximum at an intermediate Q value. The position of this correlation peak did not change with concentration while its intensity increased. This effect was ascribed to a packing of rodlike structures by analogy with a suspension of colloidal elongated particles. This local structure could be viewed as bundles of parallel double helices. Addition of carobgalactomannan in κ-carrageenan gels induced dramatic structural changes. As the galactomannan concentration increased, the correlation peak tended to vanish. In contrast, no change in the cross-sectional radius of gyration was noticed. This phenomenon suggested a screening effect of the galactomannan, resulting in a loss of the correlation between the κ-carrageenan double helices. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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