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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (42)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A new class of poly-conjugated polymers has been obtained by condensation of anthraquinones with aromatic diamines in polyphosphoric acid. The polymers are black, intractable powders. Toward obtaining tractable materials, the effect of monomer structure on polymer tractability has been studied. Copolymerizations were also carried out to “soften” these materials. Electrical conductivities in the semiconducting range, 10-4- 10-8 (ohm cm)-1 were observed. Doping with iodine showed small increases.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Alternating copolymers of styrene with β-carboalkoxy-substituted t-butyl α-cyanoacrylates undergo facile deesterification at 150-190°C, about 60°C below the deprotection temperature of poly(t-butyl methacrylate), and decarboxylation at 170-200°C. When the β-substituent is a methyl ester, the two events are clearly separated, with the deesterification occurring at a maximum rate at 165°C and decarboxylation at 193°C. Anhydride formation is negligible in this case. The copolymer with t-butyl cyanofumarate exhibits simultaneous deesterification and decarboxylation events at 180°C with concomitant minor dehydration.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Six new gem-dicyanocyclobutanes containing carbomethoxy and hydroxyl/acetoxy functions were synthesized by cycloaddition of the appropriate vinyl ethers or alkoxystyrenes to methyl β,β-dicyanoacrylate. They proved to be too thermally labile to allow polycondensation to potentially piezoelectric linear polyesters.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: polyarylate ; acidolysis ; kinetics ; mechanism ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Model reactions were carried out to simulate the acidolysis process for polyarylate synthesis by using p-tert-butylphenyl acetate (ptBuPhOAc) and benzoic acid in diphenyl ether. p-tert-Butylphenol was formed in the reaction mixture and its concentration stayed constant throughout the reaction. Acetic benzoic anhydride and benzoic anhydride were detected by NMR. Based on this experimental evidence, a mechanism for the acidolysis was proposed involving the mixed anhydride. The kinetics of the acidolysis reaction was studied for this model reaction. The overall reaction order is two and the reaction order with respect to each reactant is one. Second-order reaction rate constants were measured at different reaction conditions (200-250°C). The activation energy (Ea), activation enthalpy (ΔH≠), and activation entropy (ΔS≠) were calculated from these data. The thermodynamic parameters of the acidolysis reaction were also measured for the analogous reaction of p-tert-butylphenyl pivalate (ptBuPhOPiv) and benzoic acid. The kinetics of two other elementary reactions involved in the acidolysis reaction were also studied: p-tert-butylphenol with acetic anhydride or benzoic anhydride, and p-tert-butylphenyl pivalate with benzoic acid.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: N-cyanomethanimine ; homopolymerization ; copolymerization ; anionic ; free radical ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: New imine monomers containing C-aryl and N-cyano substituents were synthesized and polymerized by both radical and anionic initiation. Homopolymerization yielded low molecular weight polymers (Mn 〈 2100). Higher yields were obtained with anionic initiation rather than radical initiation. Radical initiated copolymerization with p-methoxystyrene gave low yields of low molecular weight copolymers. Radical initiated copolymerization with methyl acrylate gave copolymers of 15,000-,32,000 molecular weight in moderate yields, but with rather low incorporation of the imine monomer. The C-substituent affected the anionic and free radical reactivity similarly. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 35: 2703-2710, 1997
    Additional Material: 3 Tab.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: polyaniline ; acylation ; alkylation ; solubility ; conductivity ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Various alkylating and acylating agents, with different electrophilicity, were allowed to react with polyaniline “emeraldine base” (Pan-EB) or its anion. Replacing the N-hydrogens of polyaniline by various acyl or benzyl groups strongly affected the solubility and the electrical conductivity of the polymer. Neutral Pan-EB was reacted with benzoyl chloride, p-t-butylbenzoyl chloride or pivaloyl chloride in N,N′-dimethylpropylene urea (DMPU) solutions. While the benzoyl and pivaloyl derivatives showed very poor solubility in common organic solvents, the p-t-butylbenzoyl derivative was readily soluble in THF, chloroform, DMSO, etc. As expected, these acyl derivatives showed diminished electrical conductivity relative to that of the parent Pan-EB. Benzyl chlorides did not react with neutral Pan-EB. Attempts to prepare solutions of the nitrogen anion of Pan-EB by reaction with sodium hydride in DMSO or DMPU led invariably to crosslinked insoluble material. This was ascribed to Michael addition of the formed nitrogen anions to the quinonimine moieties. However forming the nitrogen anion in presence of p-t-butylbenzyl chloride trapped it to form N-benzylated Pan-EB. This was a soluble high molecular weight, electrically conductive (4.3 × 10-1 S cm-1 as the hydrochloride) N-alkyl Pan-EB. Reacting Pan-EB with excess of both sodium hydride and benzyl chlorides led to film-forming per-benzylated Pan-leucoemeraldine reduced form. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 35: 1673-1679, 1997
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The polymerizability of a variety of mono- and multi- nitriles in the presence of free radical initiators at high temperature is determined by the concentration of available cyano-groups. Mononitriles do not polymerize, but multinitriles do so readily. If alkyl substituents are introduced in a molecule that easily polymerizes, this concentration and the ability to polymerize are lowered; if several or bulky substituents are introduced, the polymerization is completely prevented. Multinitriles containing ester groups undergo decarbomethoxylation in these polymerizations. The polymers are black and highly insoluble. From the few reactions that were attempted on these polymers, we can conclude that the structure is probably not the simple conjugated imine structure proposed by earlier investigators, but more experiments are needed to prove this point. The black polymers had conductivities less than 10-9 Ω-1 but, after heating at 700°C, conductivities in the range from 10-3 to 10-6 Ω-1 are observed.
    Additional Material: 3 Tab.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We have observed that homopolymers of certain (meth)acrylate esters, prepared by the Schotten-Baumann method of (meth)acryloyl chloride and desired alcohol, in the presence of triethylamine or pyridine, formed gels. The mechanism of gelation was investigated and found to be due to a diene impurity, (meth)acrylic anhydride, which cannot be easily separated from many (meth)acrylate esters. For preparation of pure (meth)acrylate esters, the SN2 displacement reaction of (meth)acrylate anion with the desired chloro compound is recommended. The yields of the two reactions are comparable, and even t-butoxycarbonylmethyl methacrylate is produced in 73% yield by the recommended method.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The photo-induced “charge-transfer” copolymerization of various donor monomer-acceptor monomer pairs was studied by irradiation of their CT complexes with 365 nm light. The influence of the donor and acceptor strength on the rate of polymerization shows that stronger donor/weaker acceptor pairs or weaker donor/stronger acceptor pairs favor copolymerization. The proposed initiation mechanism involves the formation of an excited complex, which then collapses to the tetramethylene diradical for initiation of free radical copolymerizations.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-6258
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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