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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (7)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: permeability of gases in 6FDA polyimides ; polyimides, 6FDA, permeation of gases in ; selectivity of 6FDA polyimides for gas separations ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Mean permeability coefficients for CO2, O2, N2, and CH4 in seven types of 6FDA polyimides with branched or extended diamine moieties were determined at 35.0°C (95.0°F) and at pressures up to 10.5 atm (155 psia). In addition, solubility coefficients for CO2, O2, N2, and CH4 in six of these polyimides were determined at 35.0°C and at 6.8 atm (100 psia). Mean diffusion coefficients for the six gas/polyimide systems were calculated from the permeability and solubility data. The relationships between the chemical structure of the polyimides, some of their physical properties (glass transition temperature, mean interchain spacing, specific free volume), and their gas permeability, diffusivity, and solubility behavior are discussed. The 6FDA polyimides studied here exhibit a considerably lower selectivity for the CO2/CH4 and O2/N2 gas pairs than 6FDA polyimides with short and stiff aromatic diamines with comparable CO2 and O2 permeabilities. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1040-0397
    Keywords: Indium ; potentiometry ; membrane ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The potentiometric anion responses of polymeric membranes doped with various indium (III)-porphyrin structures are examined. The appropriate membranes are prepared by incorporating 1.0 wt % of the In(III)-porphyrins in plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) films. When such membranes are incorporated within standard ion selective electrode bodies, the resulting electrodes display non-Hofmeister anion selectivity, with a particularly enhanced and super-Nernstian response to chloride. Among those porphyrins investigated, membranes doped with chloro(octaethylporphyrinato)indium(III) yield the largest and most reproducible potentiometric anion responses. These same membrane electrodes exhibit negligible response to protons (or hydroxide) in the range of pH 4.5-9.0. When utilized as a flow-injection detector in conjunction with a protein diluent/buffer stream, the In(III)-porphyrin based electrodes may be used to determine chloride levels in human serum samples.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: To evaluate an experimental inorganicbone-particle-impregnated bone cement, canine hip prostheses were implanted in dogs using a regular bone cement on one side and the experimental bone cement on the other. In a preliminary feasibility study, bone ingrowth into the resorbed bone-particle spaces was established 3 months after implantation in three dogs. In a more detailed study, twenty-eight (28) dogs were divided in four groups to delineate the effects of time on the phenomena of bony ingrowth. One month after implantation, active bone ingrowth into the bone cement was obvious. By 3 months postimplantation, the ingrowth appeared to have traversed the thickness of the bone-particle-impregnated cement. By the fifth month, most of the interconnected inorganic bone particles were replaced by new bone. At the end of a year, the ingrown bone was mature and negligible new bone activity was present. Biomechanical pushout tests closely corroborated the histologic observations. The maximum shear strength of the cement/bone interface of the experimental side reached 3.6 times that of the control side at 5 months postimplantation. No further improvements were seen at 12 months postimplantation. A viable bone/cement interface may result in a better orthopedic implant fixation system by combining the advantages of both cement for immediate rigidity and biological ingrowth for longterm stability.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: implant ; titanium ; osteoblasts ; prostaglandin ; indomethacin ; surface roughness ; 1α,25-(OH)2D3 ; differentiation ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Surface roughness affects proliferation, differentiation (alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), local factor production [transforming growth factor (TGFβ) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)], and response to 1,25-(OH)2D3 (1,25) of MG63 osteoblast-like cells. In this study, we examined whether the effect of surface roughness on MG63 cells is mediated by prostaglandins produced by the cells. Unalloyed titanium (Ti) disks were pretreated with HF/HNO3 (PT) and then machined and acid-etched (MA). Disks were also coarse grit-sandblasted (SB), coarse grit-sandblasted and acid-etched (CA), or plasma-sprayed with Ti particles (PS). The surfaces, from smoothest to roughest, were PT, MA, CA, SB, and PS. MG63 cells were cultured to confluence on the Ti disks in the presence or absence of 10-7M indomethacin (Indo), a specific inhibitor of cyclooxygenase activity, resulting in decreased prostaglandin production. When the cells reached confluence, cell number, cell layer alkaline phosphatase specific activity (ALPase), and osteocalcin (OC) and latent TGFβ (LTGFβ) production were determined. In addition, confluent cultures which had been grown in the absence of Indo were exposed to 10-7M 1,25, 10-7M Indo, or a combination of the two for 24 h. On the rougher surfaces, cell number was decreased and ALPase, OC, and LTGFβ were increased. When indomethacin was present throughout the culture period, the effect of surface roughness on cell number, OC, and LTGFβ was abolished. ALPase was reduced, but surface roughness-dependent effects were still observed. Addition of indomethacin to confluent cultures for 24 h had no effect on any of the parameters examined, with one exception: Cells cultured on MA surfaces exhibited a more differentiated phenotype. 1,25 increased all parameters examined on SB, CA, and PS surfaces. When indomethacin was added with 1,25, the 1,25-dependent effects on cell number and OC and LTGFβ production were abolished; however, ALPase was unaffected. This indicates that bone cell response to systemic hormones may be modified by implant surface roughness. This effect may be mediated, at least in part, by prostaglandins produced by the same cells. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 41, 489-496, 1998.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Bone-particle-impregnated bone cement specimens (up to 30% by weight) were characterized by various test methods. The experimental bone cement showed decreased crack propagation rates and increased Young's modulus, while the ultimate tensile strength and impact strength were decreased. The viscosity could be adjusted by adding initiators lost when substituting the PMMA powder with bone particles. The present study warranted fur-ther in vivo experiments on the possibility of tissue ingrowth for which the new bone cement was developed.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: implant ; titanium ; osteoblasts ; surface roughness ; 1α,25- (OH)2D3 ; differentiation ; local factor ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Surface roughness has been shown to affect differentiation and local factor production of MG63 osteoblast-like cells. This study examined whether surface roughness alters cellular response to circulating hormones such as 1α,25-(OH)2D3. Unalloyed titanium (Ti) disks were pretreated with HF/HNO3 (PT) and then were machined and acid-etched (MA). Ti disks also were sandblasted (SB), sandblasted and acid etched (CA), or plasma sprayed with Ti particles (PS). The surfaces, from smoothest to roughest, were: PT, MA, CA, SB, and PS. MG63 cells were cultured to confluence on standard tissue culture polystyrene (plastic) or the Ti surfaces and then treated for 24 h with either 10-8M or 10-7M 1α,25-(OH)2D3 or vehicle (control). Cellular response was measured by assaying cell number, cell layer alkaline phosphatase specific-activity, and the production of osteocalcin, latent (L) TGFβ, and PGE2. Alkaline phosphatase activity was affected by surface roughness; as the surface became rougher, the cells showed a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. Addition of 1α,25-(OH)2D3 to the cultures caused a dose-dependent stimulation of alkaline phosphatase activity that was synergistic with the effect caused by surface roughness alone. 1α,25-(OH)2D3 also caused a synergistic increase in osteocalcin production as well as local factor (LTGFβ and PGE2) production on the rougher CA, SB, and PS surfaces, but it had no effect on the production on smooth surfaces. The inhibitory effect of surface roughness on cell number was not affected by 1α,25-(OH)2D3 except on the SB surface. 1α,25-(OH)2D3 decreased cell number, increased alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin production, and had no effect on LTGFβ or PGE2 production by MG63 cells grown on tissue culture polystyrene. These data suggest that bone cell response to systemic hormones is modified by surface roughness and that surface roughness increases the responsiveness of MG63 cells to 1α,25-(OH)2D3. They also suggest that the endocrine system is actively involved in normal bone healing around implants. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 39, 77-85, 1998.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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