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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Pharmacogenetics ; Cancer epidemiology ; Lung cancer ; Polymerase chain reaction ; Restriction fragment length polymorphism ; Cytochrome P-45011136 ; Glutathione S-transferase ; Arylamine N-acetyltransferase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Epidemiological studies suggested a protective effect of certain phenotypes of polymorphic foreign-compound-metabolizing enzymes in some types of cancer. Poor metabolizers (PM) of debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase (cytochrome P-450IID6, CYP2D6) were found to be underrepresented among patients with lung cancer. Recent advances in molecular genetic characterization of CYP2D6, glutathione S-transferase (GST) class Mu, and arylamine N-acetyltransferase enabled genotypical determination of mutant alleles in lung cancer patients. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with a cDNA gene probe of CYP2D6 was analyzed in 79 lung cancer patients who were phenotyped with debrisoquine. Mutant alleles were detected by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the same individuals, genotype of GST class Mu was analyzed by PCR and correlated with ex vivo activity of glutathione conjugation towards trans-stilbene oxide. RFLP patterns allowed discrimination between the slow and fast genotype of N-acetyltransferase as well as the heterozygotes. Three phenotypical PMs of debrisoquine (3.8%) were confirmed by PCR and RFLP. No PM could be unambiguously recognized only by RFLP patterns. The PMs were characterized by PCR and RFLP as carriers of the 29B/29B (n=1), 29A/29B (n=1), and 29A/44 (n = 1) mutant alleles. Higher debrisoquine hydroxylase activities were found in the homozygous EMs, who possess two active genes, as compared to heterozygous EMs, who have only one active gene. The patients with phenotypically impaired GST Mu activity were confirmed as such by PCR. A complete correspondence between phenotyping of N-acetyltransferase (with caffeine) and genotyping was found. The new genetic techniques proved to be powerful tools for molecular-epidemiological studies aimed at establishing host factors of cancer susceptibility.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Cytochrome P-450 ; CYP1A1 ; Polymorphism ; Lung cancer ; Polymerase chain reaction ; Cancer epidemiology ; Risk factor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Genetic differences in the metabolism of carcinogens may codetermine individual predisposition to cancer. Cytochrome P-4501A1 (CYP1A1) metabolically activates precarcinogens in cigarette smoke, such as benzo(a)pyrene, which is also an inducer of CYP1A1. Two point mutations have been reported, m1 in the 3′-flanking region (6235T to C), and m2 within exon 7 (4889A to G), the latter leading to an isoleucine to valine exchange. In the Japanese population ml and m2 are correlated with lung cancer, suggesting an increased susceptibility to cigarette smoking related lung cancer. We studied 142 lung cancer and 171 reference patients in an ethnically homogeneous German group for m1 and m2 mutations by restriction fragment length polymorphism and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, respectively. No statistically significant difference was found in the distribution of m1 alleles between lung cancer and controls; the frequency was 8.5% and 7.3% of the alleles, respectively (odds ratio = 1.17). A trend to an overrepresentation of ml alleles was observed among 52 squamous cell carcinoma patients (odds ratio = 1.65). In contrast, the frequency of m2 alleles in lung cancer patients was twofold higher (6.7%) than in the reference group (3.2%; odds ratio = 2.16; 95% confidence limits 0.96–5.11, P = 0.033); the odds ratio of m2 alleles in squamous cell carcinoma was 2.51 (95% confidence limits 0.85–7.05, P = 0.05). There was a close genetic linkage of m2 to m1 (10 of 11 reference patients), but a significantly higher number of cancer patients showed no linkage compared to the controls (odds ratio = 8.89, 95% confidence limits 0.83–433, P = 0.04). Thus no association was found between presence of ml alleles and lung cancer, but, in contrast, m2 alleles proved as a hereditary risk factor, especially if not linked with m1 alleles.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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