Insulin-like growth factor-1
Renal proximal tubular cells
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract Recent studies have reported that elevated proinsulin levels are indicative of an increased cardiovascular risk. Renal proximal tubular cells represent a major site for the metabolism of insulin-like hormones after glomerular filtration into the tubular lumen. To determine the binding and degradation of proinsulin in comparison with insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), we have used a rabbit proximal tubular cell line (PT-1). As confirmed by electron microscopy, PT-1 cells exhibit bipolar differentiation, demonstrating apical microvilli and invaginations of the basolateral membrane. To allow selective incubation of both compartments, cells were grown on filter membranes. Performing equilibrium binding assays with125I-labelled hormones, severalfold higher binding was found at the apical than at the basolateral cell membrane, with the capacity range IGF-1〉insulin〉proinsulin. Half-maximal displacement of125I-labelled insulin and IGF-1 was observed at 0.6 and 2 nM, respectively, while crossover binding to the alternate receptor occurred with a 10- to 100-fold lower affinity. Half-maximal displacement of125I-proinsulin binding was obtained at approx. 8 nM proinsulin and insulin, whereas IGF-1 was 10-fold less potent. The relative degradation of specifically bound tracer was lowest for proinsulin (apical: 10%, basolateral: 13%). IGF-1 was degraded by 20% at the apical cell membrane, and up to 78% at the basolateral membrane. In contrast, almost the total amount of insulin bound was degraded at both membrane sites (apical: 99%, basolateral: 83%). These results suggest separate insulin and IGF-1 receptors, while proinsulin binds with high affinity to a third insulin-like receptor on the apical membrane of PT-1 cells.
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