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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-11-11
    Description: Lysosomal degradation of cytoplasmic components by autophagy is essential for cellular survival and homeostasis under nutrient-deprived conditions. Acute regulation of autophagy by nutrient-sensing kinases is well defined, but longer-term transcriptional regulation is relatively unknown. Here we show that the fed-state sensing nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the fasting transcriptional activator cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) coordinately regulate the hepatic autophagy gene network. Pharmacological activation of FXR repressed many autophagy genes and inhibited autophagy even in fasted mice, and feeding-mediated inhibition of macroautophagy was attenuated in FXR-knockout mice. From mouse liver chromatin immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing data, FXR and CREB binding peaks were detected at 178 and 112 genes, respectively, out of 230 autophagy-related genes, and 78 genes showed shared binding, mostly in their promoter regions. CREB promoted autophagic degradation of lipids, or lipophagy, under nutrient-deprived conditions, and FXR inhibited this response. Mechanistically, CREB upregulated autophagy genes, including Atg7, Ulk1 and Tfeb, by recruiting the coactivator CRTC2. After feeding or pharmacological activation, FXR trans-repressed these genes by disrupting the functional CREB-CRTC2 complex. This study identifies the new FXR-CREB axis as a key physiological switch regulating autophagy, resulting in sustained nutrient regulation of autophagy during feeding/fasting cycles.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4257899/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4257899/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Seok, Sunmi -- Fu, Ting -- Choi, Sung-E -- Li, Yang -- Zhu, Rong -- Kumar, Subodh -- Sun, Xiaoxiao -- Yoon, Gyesoon -- Kang, Yup -- Zhong, Wenxuan -- Ma, Jian -- Kemper, Byron -- Kemper, Jongsook Kim -- DK62777/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK95842/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK062777/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK095842/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Dec 4;516(7529):108-11. doi: 10.1038/nature13949. Epub 2014 Nov 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; 1] Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA [2] Institute for Medical Science, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749, Korea. ; Department of Bioengineering and the Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; Department of Statistics, University of Georgia, Athens, Gerogia 30602, USA. ; Institute for Medical Science, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749, Korea.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25383523" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Autophagy/*genetics ; Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/*metabolism ; Fasting/physiology ; *Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects ; Isoxazoles/pharmacology ; Liver/cytology/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Protein Binding ; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/agonists/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-03-05
    Description: Recognition of modified histones by 'reader' proteins plays a critical role in the regulation of chromatin. H3K36 trimethylation (H3K36me3) is deposited onto the nucleosomes in the transcribed regions after RNA polymerase II elongation. In yeast, this mark in turn recruits epigenetic regulators to reset the chromatin to a relatively repressive state, thus suppressing cryptic transcription. However, much less is known about the role of H3K36me3 in transcription regulation in mammals. This is further complicated by the transcription-coupled incorporation of the histone variant H3.3 in gene bodies. Here we show that the candidate tumour suppressor ZMYND11 specifically recognizes H3K36me3 on H3.3 (H3.3K36me3) and regulates RNA polymerase II elongation. Structural studies show that in addition to the trimethyl-lysine binding by an aromatic cage within the PWWP domain, the H3.3-dependent recognition is mediated by the encapsulation of the H3.3-specific 'Ser 31' residue in a composite pocket formed by the tandem bromo-PWWP domains of ZMYND11. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing shows a genome-wide co-localization of ZMYND11 with H3K36me3 and H3.3 in gene bodies, and its occupancy requires the pre-deposition of H3.3K36me3. Although ZMYND11 is associated with highly expressed genes, it functions as an unconventional transcription co-repressor by modulating RNA polymerase II at the elongation stage. ZMYND11 is critical for the repression of a transcriptional program that is essential for tumour cell growth; low expression levels of ZMYND11 in breast cancer patients correlate with worse prognosis. Consistently, overexpression of ZMYND11 suppresses cancer cell growth in vitro and tumour formation in mice. Together, this study identifies ZMYND11 as an H3.3-specific reader of H3K36me3 that links the histone-variant-mediated transcription elongation control to tumour suppression.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4142212/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4142212/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wen, Hong -- Li, Yuanyuan -- Xi, Yuanxin -- Jiang, Shiming -- Stratton, Sabrina -- Peng, Danni -- Tanaka, Kaori -- Ren, Yongfeng -- Xia, Zheng -- Wu, Jun -- Li, Bing -- Barton, Michelle C -- Li, Wei -- Li, Haitao -- Shi, Xiaobing -- CA016672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA016672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM090077/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG007538/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01GM090077/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01HG007538/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Apr 10;508(7495):263-8. doi: 10.1038/nature13045. Epub 2014 Mar 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2] Center for Cancer Epigenetics, Center for Genetics and Genomics, and Center for Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [3]. ; 1] MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Sciences, Center for Structural Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China [2] Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China [3]. ; 1] Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2]. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; 1] MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Sciences, Center for Structural Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China [2] Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA. ; 1] Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2] Center for Cancer Epigenetics, Center for Genetics and Genomics, and Center for Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [3] Genes and Development Graduate Program, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, Teaxs 77030, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24590075" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Breast Neoplasms/*genetics/metabolism/*pathology ; Carrier Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Chromatin/genetics/metabolism ; Co-Repressor Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Disease-Free Survival ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics ; Histones/chemistry/*metabolism ; Humans ; Lysine/*metabolism ; Methylation ; Mice ; Mice, Nude ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Oncogenes/genetics ; Prognosis ; Protein Binding ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; RNA Polymerase II/*metabolism ; Substrate Specificity ; *Transcription Elongation, Genetic
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-10-22
    Description: A large number of cis-regulatory sequences have been annotated in the human genome, but defining their target genes remains a challenge. One strategy is to identify the long-range looping interactions at these elements with the use of chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based techniques. However, previous studies lack either the resolution or coverage to permit a whole-genome, unbiased view of chromatin interactions. Here we report a comprehensive chromatin interaction map generated in human fibroblasts using a genome-wide 3C analysis method (Hi-C). We determined over one million long-range chromatin interactions at 5-10-kb resolution, and uncovered general principles of chromatin organization at different types of genomic features. We also characterized the dynamics of promoter-enhancer contacts after TNF-alpha signalling in these cells. Unexpectedly, we found that TNF-alpha-responsive enhancers are already in contact with their target promoters before signalling. Such pre-existing chromatin looping, which also exists in other cell types with different extracellular signalling, is a strong predictor of gene induction. Our observations suggest that the three-dimensional chromatin landscape, once established in a particular cell type, is relatively stable and could influence the selection or activation of target genes by a ubiquitous transcription activator in a cell-specific manner.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3838900/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3838900/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jin, Fulai -- Li, Yan -- Dixon, Jesse R -- Selvaraj, Siddarth -- Ye, Zhen -- Lee, Ah Young -- Yen, Chia-An -- Schmitt, Anthony D -- Espinoza, Celso A -- Ren, Bing -- P50 GM085764/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM085764-03/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008666/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 ES017166/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Nov 14;503(7475):290-4. doi: 10.1038/nature12644. Epub 2013 Oct 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2].〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24141950" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cell Line ; Chromatin/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; *Chromosome Mapping ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/physiology ; Gene Expression Regulation ; *Genome, Human ; Humans ; Imaging, Three-Dimensional ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/physiology ; Protein Binding ; Signal Transduction ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-07-09
    Description: The newly emergent Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) can cause severe pulmonary disease in humans, representing the second example of a highly pathogenic coronavirus, the first being SARS-CoV. CD26 (also known as dipeptidyl peptidase 4, DPP4) was recently identified as the cellular receptor for MERS-CoV. The engagement of the MERS-CoV spike protein with CD26 mediates viral attachment to host cells and virus-cell fusion, thereby initiating infection. Here we delineate the molecular basis of this specific interaction by presenting the first crystal structures of both the free receptor binding domain (RBD) of the MERS-CoV spike protein and its complex with CD26. Furthermore, binding between the RBD and CD26 is measured using real-time surface plasmon resonance with a dissociation constant of 16.7 nM. The viral RBD is composed of a core subdomain homologous to that of the SARS-CoV spike protein, and a unique strand-dominated external receptor binding motif that recognizes blades IV and V of the CD26 beta-propeller. The atomic details at the interface between the two binding entities reveal a surprising protein-protein contact mediated mainly by hydrophilic residues. Sequence alignment indicates, among betacoronaviruses, a possible structural conservation for the region homologous to the MERS-CoV RBD core, but a high variation in the external receptor binding motif region for virus-specific pathogenesis such as receptor recognition.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lu, Guangwen -- Hu, Yawei -- Wang, Qihui -- Qi, Jianxun -- Gao, Feng -- Li, Yan -- Zhang, Yanfang -- Zhang, Wei -- Yuan, Yuan -- Bao, Jinku -- Zhang, Buchang -- Shi, Yi -- Yan, Jinghua -- Gao, George F -- England -- Nature. 2013 Aug 8;500(7461):227-31. doi: 10.1038/nature12328. Epub 2013 Jul 7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23831647" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Conserved Sequence/genetics ; Coronavirus/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/*chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; Protein Binding ; Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/genetics ; Protein Structure, Tertiary/genetics ; Receptors, Virus/*chemistry/*metabolism ; *Virus Attachment
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-03-31
    Description: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are common inherited and sporadic vascular malformations that cause strokes and seizures in younger individuals. CCMs arise from endothelial cell loss of KRIT1, CCM2 or PDCD10, non-homologous proteins that form an adaptor complex. How disruption of the CCM complex results in disease remains controversial, with numerous signalling pathways (including Rho, SMAD and Wnt/beta-catenin) and processes such as endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) proposed to have causal roles. CCM2 binds to MEKK3 (refs 7, 8, 9, 10, 11), and we have recently shown that CCM complex regulation of MEKK3 is essential during vertebrate heart development. Here we investigate this mechanism in CCM disease pathogenesis. Using a neonatal mouse model of CCM disease, we show that expression of the MEKK3 target genes Klf2 and Klf4, as well as Rho and ADAMTS protease activity, are increased in the endothelial cells of early CCM lesions. By contrast, we find no evidence of EndMT or increased SMAD or Wnt signalling during early CCM formation. Endothelial-specific loss of Map3k3 (also known as Mekk3), Klf2 or Klf4 markedly prevents lesion formation, reverses the increase in Rho activity, and rescues lethality. Consistent with these findings in mice, we show that endothelial expression of KLF2 and KLF4 is increased in human familial and sporadic CCM lesions, and that a disease-causing human CCM2 mutation abrogates the MEKK3 interaction without affecting CCM complex formation. These studies identify gain of MEKK3 signalling and KLF2/4 function as causal mechanisms for CCM pathogenesis that may be targeted to develop new CCM therapeutics.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4864035/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4864035/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhou, Zinan -- Tang, Alan T -- Wong, Weng-Yew -- Bamezai, Sharika -- Goddard, Lauren M -- Shenkar, Robert -- Zhou, Su -- Yang, Jisheng -- Wright, Alexander C -- Foley, Matthew -- Arthur, J Simon C -- Whitehead, Kevin J -- Awad, Issam A -- Li, Dean Y -- Zheng, Xiangjian -- Kahn, Mark L -- P01 HL075215/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL120846/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 NS092521/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01NS092521/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL094326/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL-084516/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL094326/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01NS075168/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- T32HL07439/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):122-6. doi: 10.1038/nature17178. Epub 2016 Mar 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medicine and Cardiovascular Institute, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Civic Center Blvd, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Laboratory of Cardiovascular Signaling, Centenary Institute, Sydney, New South Wales 2050, Australia. ; Neurovascular Surgery Program, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago Medicine and Biological Sciences, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Sydney Microscopy &Microanalysis, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2050, Australia. ; Division of Cell Signaling and Immunology, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK. ; Division of Cardiovascular Medicine and the Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA. ; The Key Laboratory for Human Disease Gene Study of Sichuan Province, Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences &Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan 610072, China. ; Faculty of Medicine, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2050, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27027284" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: ADAM Proteins/metabolism ; Animals ; Animals, Newborn ; Carrier Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Disease Models, Animal ; Endothelial Cells/enzymology/*metabolism ; Female ; Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System/etiology/*metabolism/pathology ; Humans ; Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors/deficiency/*metabolism ; MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 3/deficiency/*metabolism ; *MAP Kinase Signaling System ; Male ; Mice ; Protein Binding ; rho GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-12-25
    Description: The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) subunit POLR2A is a platform for modifications specifying the recruitment of factors that regulate transcription, mRNA processing, and chromatin remodelling. Here we show that a CTD arginine residue (R1810 in human) that is conserved across vertebrates is symmetrically dimethylated (me2s). This R1810me2s modification requires protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) and recruits the Tudor domain of the survival of motor neuron (SMN, also known as GEMIN1) protein, which is mutated in spinal muscular atrophy. SMN interacts with senataxin, which is sometimes mutated in ataxia oculomotor apraxia type 2 and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Because POLR2A R1810me2s and SMN, like senataxin, are required for resolving RNA-DNA hybrids created by RNA polymerase II that form R-loops in transcription termination regions, we propose that R1810me2s, SMN, and senataxin are components of an R-loop resolution pathway. Defects in this pathway can influence transcription termination and may contribute to neurodegenerative disorders.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhao, Dorothy Yanling -- Gish, Gerald -- Braunschweig, Ulrich -- Li, Yue -- Ni, Zuyao -- Schmitges, Frank W -- Zhong, Guoqing -- Liu, Ke -- Li, Weiguo -- Moffat, Jason -- Vedadi, Masoud -- Min, Jinrong -- Pawson, Tony J -- Blencowe, Benjamin J -- Greenblatt, Jack F -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 7;529(7584):48-53. doi: 10.1038/nature16469. Epub 2015 Dec 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. ; Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada. ; Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4, Canada. ; Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26700805" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Arginine/*metabolism ; Cell Line ; DNA Damage ; Humans ; Methylation ; Neurodegenerative Diseases/genetics ; Protein Binding ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Protein-Arginine N-Methyltransferases/genetics/metabolism ; RNA Helicases/genetics/metabolism ; RNA Polymerase II/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Survival of Motor Neuron 1 Protein/genetics/*metabolism ; Transcription Elongation, Genetic ; *Transcription Termination, Genetic
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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