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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Der Nervenarzt 68 (1997), S. 21-37 
    ISSN: 1433-0407
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Neuronale Netzwerke ; Neuroinformatik ; Psychopathologie ; Linguistik ; Entwicklungspsychologie ; Denkstörungen ; Wahn ; Key words Neural network ; Neuroinformation ; Psychopathology ; Thought disorder ; Delusion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Within the past 10 years, computer simulations of neural networks have yielded new insights into the nature of information-processing neural systems. Since 1987, more and more network models relevant to psychiatry have been published, and such models have meanwhile been proposed for almost every psychopathological phenomenon. This paper provides an introduction to the theory of neural networks and gives examples of discoveries made via computer simulations. Network models of psychopathological phenomena are discussed with respect to formal thought disorder and delusions. The relevance of neural network models for psychopathological research and theory formulation is highlighted and it is argued that neural network modeling in psychopathology does not merely introduce a few mathematical gimmicks, but rather represents the beginning of a new basis for psychopathology.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Computersimulationen des Verhaltens neuronaler Netzwerke haben im vergangenen Jahrzehnt wesentliche Erkenntnisse zu Systemeigenschaften informationsverarbeitender neuronaler Verbände geliefert. Psychiatrisch relevante Modelle wurden seit 1987 in zunehmendem Maß publiziert und betreffen mittlerweile nahezu das gesamte Spektrum psychopathologischer Sachverhalte. Die vorliegende Arbeit gibt zunächst eine Einführung in die Theorie neuronaler Netzwerke, woran sich die Erörterung einiger wichtiger, durch Computersimulationen gewonnener Entdeckungen von Prinzipien neuronaler Informationsverarbeitung anschließt. Netzwerkmodelle psychopathologischer Sachverhalte werden am Beispiel von formalen Denkstörungen und Wahn diskutiert, wonach abschließend auf die Relevanz der Ergebnisse für die allgemeine Psychopathologie insgesamt eingegangen wird. Es wird argumentiert, daß es sich bei psychopathologischen Modellen, die sich auf neuronale Netzwerke berufen, nicht um kurzlebige Erscheinungen handelt, die die bestehende Psychopathologie noch um einige mathematische Kuriositäten bereichern, sondern um den Beginn einer neuen Grundlegung der allgemeinen Psychopathologie.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Key words Inhibition ; Perception ; Psychopathology ; Repetition blindness ; Schizophrenia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Repetition blindness is the failure to report the detection of repeated items in rapid visually presented lists. It can be explained in terms of either a processing limitation or an active inhibitory process. In two studies conducted in either English or German language we set out to induce repetition blindness under various conditions in a total of 47 control subjects and 30 schizophrenic patients. The patients displayed the phenomenon to at least the same degree as normal control subjects. These results render unlikely accounts of repetition blindness which involve processes known to be dysfunctional in schizophrenic patients. Moreover, the study provides an example of how the performance of schizophrenic patients can constrain theories of normal cognition.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words MDE ; Ecstasy ; Methamphetamine ; Psilocybin ; Entactogens ; Psychopathology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The aim of this study was to contribute to the characterization of the entactogen (ecstasy) substance group. The psychopathological, neuroendocrine and autonomic effects of common recreational doses of the entactogen 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDE), the hallucinogen psilocybin, the stimulant d-methamphetamine and placebo were investigated in a double-blind study with healthy volunteers (n = 32). Psychological effects of the drugs were assessed by means of standardized rating scales, self assessment inventories and free descriptions. The most characteristic effects of MDE were pleasant emotional experiences of relaxation, peacefulness, content and closeness to others. However, significant stimulant and hallucinogen-like effects were also present, although the latter were weaker than the effects of psilocybin. MDE elicited the strongest endocrine and autonomic effects among the three drugs, including robust rises of serum cortisol and prolactin, elevations of blood pressure and heart rate, and a moderate, but significant rise of body temperature. The apparent contrast between psychological and autonomic effects (subjective relaxation versus physical activation) was a unique feature of the MDE state. Our findings are in line with both users’ reports and results from previous experimental studies, and support the view that entactogens constitute a distinct psychoactive substance class taking an intermediate position between hallucinogens and stimulants.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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