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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: R-Bodies ; Kappa particles ; Free-living hydrogen bacteria ; Induction ; Electron microscopy ; Chemical composition ; Defective prophages ; Plasmids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract R-Bodies have been found in a recently isolated pseudomonas-like free-living hydrogen oxidizing bacterium. Their isolation, fine structure and chemical composition are described and compared with the R-bodies from the kappa particles (Caedobacter), obligate endosymbionts of Paramecium aurelia. The 2K 1 R-bodies exhibited essential characteristics of the kappa R-bodies; however, their size and some other structural aspects proved that they represent a new type of R-bodies. The presence of phage tail-like particles in cells induced with Mitomycin C is in favour of the hypothesis that the R-bodies might be coded by defective prophages, or by extrachromosomal elements.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Pyruvate Kinase ; Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides ; Cold-Lability ; Allosteric Properties
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Pyruvate kinase (EC2.7.1.40) from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides was purified 40-fold by precipitation with protamine sulfate and ammonium sulfate followed by gelfiltration. The preparations obtained from cells grown with different carbon sources or cultural conditions differ with respect to specific activity but not with respect to molecular weight (250000 dalton) or regulatory properties. The phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-saturation curve of the enzyme is sigmoidal with Hill coefficients varying from n H =1.8 (pH 9.2) to 2.7 (pH 6.0). The enzyme is activated by adenosinemonophosphate (AMP) and the sugarmonophosphates ribose-5-phosphate (R-5-P), glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P), and-to a lesser extent-fructose-6-phosphate (F-6-P). Fructose-1.6-bisphosphate (FDP) has no measurable effect. Inhibitors of the enzyme are adenosintriphosphate (ATP), inorganic phosphate (P i ) and the dicarboxylic acids succinate and fumarate. Kinetic analysis reveals that the sugar-phosphates and the dicarboxylic acids act as true allosteric ligands, wheras the effects of AMP, ATP, and P i cannot be interpreted solely in terms of allosteric interactions. Cold-treatment of the enzyme leads to a rapid loss of activity, but does not change the regulatory properties of the enzyme. Analysis of the kinetics of cold-inactivation and its reversal at 30°C, together with studies on the gelfiltration behaviour of the native and the cold-treated enzyme make it likely that the cold-induced loss of activity is due to a dissociation of the enzyme.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Pyruvate Kinase ; Allosteric Regulation ; Regulation in vivo ; Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The biosynthesis of the enzyme pyruvate kinase (E.C. 2.7.1.40) of Alcaligenes eutrophus (Hydrogenomonas eutropha) H 16 was influenced by the carbon and energy source. After growth on gluconate the specific enzyme activity was high while acetate grown cells exhibited lower activities (340 and 55 μmoles/min·g protein, respectively). The pyruvate kinase from autotrophically grown cells was purified 110-fold. The enzyme was characterized by homotropic cooperative interactions with the substrate phosphoenolpyruvate, the activators AMP, ribose-5-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate and the inhibitor ortho-phosphate. In addition to phosphate ATP caused inhibition but in this case non-sigmoidal kinetics was obtained. The half maximal substrate saturation constant S0.5 for phosphoenolpyruvate in the absence of any effectors was 0.12 mM, in the presence of 1 mM ribose-5-phosphate 0.07 mM, and with 9 mM phosphate 0.67 mM. The corresponding Hill values were 0.96, 1.1 and 2.75. The ADP saturation curve was hyperbolic even in the presence of the effectors, the K m value was 0.14 mM ADP. When the known intracellular metabolite concentrations in A. eutrophus H 16 were compared with the regulatory sensitivity of the enzyme, it appeared that under the conditions in vivo the inhibition by ATP was more important than the regulation by the allosteric effectors.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Aquaspirillum autotrophicum ; Hydrogen bacterium ; Growth ; Chemolithoautotrophy ; Particulate hydrogenase ; Induction ; Repression ; Natural habitats
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Aquaspirillum autrotrophicum, an aerobic hydrogen bacterium recently isolated from an eutrophic freshwater lake, was characterized physiologically. It grew autotrophically in a fermenter with a doubling time of 4 h. Heterotrophic growth was faster. pH-Optimum ranged from 5.0–7.5, temperature optimum was about 28° C. During autotrophic growth about 10 moles hydrogen were consumed per 1 mole carbon dioxide fixed. Hydrogenase activity is inducible. CO2 did not enhance the oxy-hydrogen reaction by intact cells. The hydrogenase activity was localized in the particulate fraction. The hydrogenase reduced methylene blue and phenazine methosulfate; pyridine nucleotides were not reduced. In cell-free extracts, hydrogenase was sensitive to oxygen. Ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase was present in autotrophically-grown cells and absent from heterotrophically grown cells. Hydrogenase induction in heterotrophically-grown cells followed parabolic kinetics. Oxygen and D-gluconate repressed hydrogenase synthesis, whereas citrate, DL-lactate and pyruvate stimulated its formation. The repressive effect was delayed. The results suggest that the control of hydrogenase synthesis occurred at the transcriptional level, and that mRNA coding for the hydrogenase had a relatively long life span. D-Gluconate was degraded via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, the enzymes of which were constitutively formed. Enzymes of the pentosephosphate and Embden-Meyerhof pathways (except phosphofructokinase) were present, too. Hydrogen did not inhibit heterotrophic growth. The possible competitive advantage of the physiological properties described with regard to the natural habitat was discussed.
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