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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Temperature Regulation ; Control of Shivering ; Central Thermosensitive Structures ; Spinal Cord ; Diencephalon ; Temperaturregulation ; Steuerung des Kältezitterns ; zentrale thermosensitive Strukturen ; Rückenmark ; Zwischenhirn
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In young guinea pigs the ascending pathways from the spinal thermosensitive region were studied by means of 1. microelectrode recording and 2. micro-electrocoagulation. In the first series of studies, impulse frequency was recorded from single units of the spinothalamic tract which responded to a temperature rise in the spinal segments C5-T2 with an increase of discharge frequency. At a spinal cord temperature of 38–39° C these units showed a firing rate of 1–5 imp./sec; local heating of the spinal cord (dT/dt=0.1° C/sec) to 40–41° C caused an increase in discharge frequency to 20–25 imp./sec. The mean static impulse frequency was 3 imp./sec at a spinal cord temperature of 39° C, and 10 imp./sec at a spinal cord temperature of 42.5° C. In the second series of studies bilateral RF-coagulations were carried out in different sites of the diencephalon. These experiments showed that the ascending fibres from the spinal thermosensitive region connect the thermosensitive spinal region with a hypothalamic “temperature control centre”.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Cardiac autonomic reflexes ; Impedance cardiography ; Posture effect ; Heart rate change ; Autonomic neuropathy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A standardized Valsalva manoeuvre (VM) with a 15-s straining period was repeated in each of four postures by six male subjects. The postures were supine (SUP), sitting leaning back (LB), sitting leaning forward (LF) and standing (ST). During straining, the increase in heart rate (f c) was different between LB and LF (+50% and +23%, respectively P〈0.05). The decrease in stroke volume (SV), which was monitored by means of impedance cardiography, was different (63%, 68%, 39%, and 72%, P〈0.001) as well as the decrease in cardiac output (CO) (55%, 53%, 26%, and 61%, P〈0.001) in SUP, LB, LF, and ST, respectively. Accordingly, after pressure release the smallest changes of SV, f c and CO were found in LF. In conclusion, cardiovascular stability during straining was increased during LF. Consequently, this posture would appear to be superior to other postures during unavoidable VM (weight lifting and defaecation). To perform tests on autonomic function LB would appear to be superior to the other postures because of the large autonomic responses, combined with minimum risk for the subject. The impedance method provided simple and reproducible determinations of SV changes during VM.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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