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  • AGE  (36)
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  • 1
    Keywords: ENERGIES ; CANCER ; MODEL ; COHORT ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; colon ; ASSOCIATION ; ACID ; ACIDS ; NO ; hormone ; ENERGY ; AGE ; WOMEN ; colorectal cancer ; MEN ; smoking ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; COUNTRIES ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; cancer risk ; FIBER ; FRANCE ; COLON-CANCER ; MULTIVARIATE ; fatty acids ; FATTY-ACIDS ; DIETARY ; CANCER-RESEARCH ; CONSUMPTION ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ; FRUIT ; nutrition ; QUESTIONNAIRE ; CALIBRATION ; FOOD ; ASSOCIATIONS ; colon cancer ; WEIGHT ; CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE ; DIETARY-INTAKE MEASUREMENTS ; EPIC PROJECT ; HEIGHT
    Abstract: A link between unsaturated fatty acids or phytonutrients and reduced risk of colorectal cancer has been suggested. However, the effects of higher intake of dietary sources of these nutrients, such as the nuts and seeds food group, are less clear. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of nut and seed intake on colorectal cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, a large prospective cohort study involving 10 European countries. Total nut and seed intake was determined from country-specific dietary questionnaires. The data set included 478,040 subjects (141,988 men, 336,052 women) with a total of 855 (327 men, 528 women) colon and 474 (215 men, 259 women) rectal cancer cases. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, stratified by center and controlled for fruit intake, dietary fiber, energy, height, weight, sex, age, physical activity, and smoking, was used. The data show no association between higher intake of nuts and seeds and risk of colorectal, colon, and rectal cancers in men and women combined, but a significant inverse association was observed in subgroup analyses for colon cancer in women at the highest (〉6.2 g/d) versus the lowest (nonconsumers; hazard ratio, 0.69;, 95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.95) category of intake and for the linear effect of log-transformed intake (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.98), with no associations in men. It is not evident from this data why there may be a stronger association in women or why it may be limited to the colon, suggesting that much, further research is necessary
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15466975
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  • 2
    Keywords: ENERGIES ; CANCER ; MODEL ; FOLLOW-UP ; POPULATION ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; hormone ; ENERGY ; AGE ; WOMEN ; colorectal cancer ; MEN ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; smoking ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; cancer risk ; FISH ; FIBER ; COLON-CANCER ; DOSE-RESPONSE ; Jun ; DIET ; DIETARY ; UNITED-STATES ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; nutrition ; ASSOCIATIONS ; RE ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; EPIC CALIBRATION ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; INTERVAL ; TESTS ; alcohol consumption ; MEAT INTAKE ; DIETARY CARCINOGENS ; GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY ; N-NITROSATION ; RED MEAT
    Abstract: Background. Current evidence suggests that high red meat intake is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. High fish intake may be associated with a decreased risk, but the existing evidence is less convincing. Methods: We prospectively followed 478040 men and women from 10 European countries who were free of cancer at enrollment between 1992 and 1998. Information on diet and lifestyle was collected at baseline. After a mean follow-up of 4.8 years, 1329 incident colorectal cancers were documented. We examined the relationship between intakes of red and processed meat, poultry, and fish and colorectal cancer risk using a proportional hazards model adjusted for age, sex, energy (nonfat and fat sources), height, weight, work-related physical activity, smoking status, dietary fiber and folate, and alcohol consumption, stratified by center. A calibration substudy based on 36994 subjects was used to correct hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for diet measurement errors. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with intake of red and processed meat (highest [〉 160 g/day] versus lowest [〈 20 g/day] intake, HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.96 to 1.88; P-trend = .03) and inversely associated with intake of fish (〉 80 g/day versus 〈 10 g/day, HR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.88; P-trend 〈 .001), but was not related to poultry intake. Correcting for measurement error strengthened the associations between colorectal cancer and red and processed meat intake (per 100-g increase HR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.41, P-trend = .001 and HR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.19 to 2.02, P-trend = .001 before and after calibration, respectively) and for fish (per 100 g increase HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.57 to 0.87, P-trend 〈 .001 and HR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.77, P-trend = .003; before and after correction, respectively). In this study population, the absolute risk of development of colorectal cancer within 10 years for a study subject aged 50 years was 1.71% for the highest category of red and processed meat intake and 1.28% for the lowest category of intake and was 1.86% for subjects in the lowest category of fish intake and 1.28% for subjects in the highest category of fish intake. Conclusions: Our data confirm that colorectal cancer risk is positively associated with high consumption of red and processed meat and support an inverse association with fish intake
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15956652
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; human ; MODEL ; COHORT ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; MEN ; COUNTRIES ; DIETARY ; ALCOHOL ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; nutrition ; VEGETABLES ; CALIBRATION ; RELATIVE RISK ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; LEVEL ; INTERVAL ; FRUITS ; fruits and vegetables ; prospective ; prospective study ; RECOMMENDATIONS ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; CANCERS ; VARIABLES ; root vegetables ; SUBGROUPS ; upper aero-digestive cancer
    Abstract: Epidemiologic studies suggest that a high intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with decreased risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract. We studied data from 345,904 subjects of the prospective European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) recruited in seven European countries, who had completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-1998. During 2,182,560 person years of observation 352 histologically verified incident squamous cell cancer (SCC) cases (255 males; 97 females) of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus were identified. Linear and restricted cubic spline Cox regressions were fitted on variables of intake of fruits and vegetables and adjusted for potential confounders. We observed a significant inverse association with combined total fruits and vegetables intake (estimated relative risk (RR) = 0.91; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.83-1.00 per 80 g/d of consumption), and nearly significant inverse associations in separate analyses with total fruits and total vegetables intake (RR: 0.97 (95% CI: 0.92-1.02) and RR = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.78-1.02) per 40 g/d of consumption). Overall, vegetable subgroups were not related to risk with the exception of intake of root vegetables in men. Restricted cubic spline regression did not improve the linear model fits except for total fruits and vegetables and total fruits with a significant decrease in risk at low intake levels (〈 120 g/d) for fruits. Dietary recommendations should consider the potential benefit of increasing fruits and vegetables consumption for reducing the risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract, particularly at low intake
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16841263
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; RISKS ; AGE ; WOMEN ; OBESITY ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; TOBACCO ; GLUCOSE ; BODY ; DIABETES-MELLITUS ; nutrition ; pancreatic cancer ; RELATIVE RISK ; physical activity ; MASS INDEX ; PANCREATIC-CANCER ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; HEIGHT ; WAIST ; INTERVAL ; pancreatic ; INSULIN-RESISTANCE ; PARTICIPANTS ; anthropometry ; prospective ; RISK-FACTOR ; BODY-FAT DISTRIBUTION ; hip ; MALE SMOKERS
    Abstract: Tobacco smoking is the only established risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Results from several epidemiologic studies have suggested that increased body mass index and/or lack of physical activity may be associated with an increased risk of this disease. We examined the relationship between anthropometry and physical activity recorded at baseline and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (n = 438,405 males and females age 19-84 years and followed for a total of 2,826,070 person-years). Relative risks (RR) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models stratified by age, sex, and country and adjusted for smoking and self-reported diabetes and, where appropriate, height. In total, there were 324 incident cases of pancreatic cancer diagnosed in the cohort over an average of 6 years of follow-up. There was evidence that the RR of pancreatic cancer was associated with increased height [RR, 1.74; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.20-2.52] for highest quartile compared with lowest quartile (P-trend = 0.001). However, this trend was primarily due to a low risk in the lowest quartile, as when this group was excluded, the trend was no longer statistically significant (P = 0.27). A larger waist-to-hip ratio and waist circumference were both associated with an increased risk of developing the disease (RR per 0.1, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.04-1.48; P-trend = 0.02 and RR per 10 cm, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.26; P-trend = 0.03, respectively). There was a nonsignificant increased risk of pancreatic cancer with increasing body mass index (RR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.95-1.24 per 5 kg/m(2)), and a nonsignificant decreased risk with total physical activity (RR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.50-1.35 for most active versus inactive). Future studies should consider including measurements of waist and hip circumference, to further investigate the relationship between central adiposity and the risk of pancreatic cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16702364
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; LUNG ; FOLLOW-UP ; INFORMATION ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; COHORT ; cohort study ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; EXPOSURE ; MORTALITY ; occupation ; POPULATION ; RISK ; RISKS ; REDUCTION ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; HUMANS ; WOMEN ; MEN ; risk factors ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; cancer risk ; POPULATIONS ; DIET ; VALIDITY ; EPIC ; nutrition ; SMOKERS ; RELATIVE RISK ; exercise ; physical activity ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; INTERVAL ; SUBTYPES ; prospective ; UNIT ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; sports ; occupations ; ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRE
    Abstract: Research conducted predominantly in male populations on physical activity and lung cancer has yielded inconsistent results. We examined this relationship among 416,277 men and women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Detailed information on recent recreational, household and occupational physical activity, smoking habits and diet was assessed at baseline between 1992 and 2000. Relative risks (RR) were estimated using Cox regression. During 6.3 years of follow-up we identified 607 men and 476 women with incident lung cancer. We did not observe an inverse association between recent occupational, recreational or household physical activity and lung cancer risk in either males or females. However, we found some reduction in lung cancer risk associated with sports in males (adjusted RR = 0.71; 95% confidence interval 0.50-0.98; highest tertile vs. inactive group), cycling (RR = 0.73; 0.54-0.99) in females and non-occupational vigorous physical activity. For occupational physical activity, lung cancer risk was increased for unemployed men (adjusted RR = 1.57; 1.20-2.05) and men with standing occupations (RR = 1.35; 1.02-1.79) compared with sitting professions. There was no evidence of heterogeneity of physical activity associations across countries, or across any of the considered cofactors. For some histologic subtypes suggestive sex-specific reductions, limited by subgroup sizes, were observed, especially with vigorous physical activity. In total, our study shows no consistent protective associations of physical activity with lung cancer risk. It can be assumed that the elevated risks found for occupational physical activity are not produced mechanistically by physical activity itself but rather reflect exposure to occupation-related lung cancer risk factors. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16894558
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; human ; MODEL ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; SUPPORT ; DEATH ; RISK ; RISKS ; TIME ; INDEX ; ASSOCIATION ; AGE ; WOMEN ; MEN ; OBESITY ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; RECRUITMENT ; PREDICTION ; ALCOHOL ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; nutrition ; EUROPE ; RELATIVE RISK ; BODIES ; REGRESSION ; WEIGHT ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; HEIGHT ; LEVEL ; analysis ; methods ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY ; alcohol consumption ; USA ; prospective ; BMI ; WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION ; MEDICINE ; NOV ; body mass ; RATIO ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer ; PREDICTING MORTALITY ; ROC CURVE
    Abstract: BACKGROUND Previous studies have relied predominantly on the body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) to assess the association of adiposity with the risk of death, but few have examined whether the distribution of body fat contributes to the prediction of death. METHODS We examined the association of BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio with the risk of death among 359,387 participants from nine countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We used a Cox regression analysis, with age as the time variable, and stratified the models according to study center and age at recruitment, with further adjustment for educational level, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and height. RESULTS During a mean follow-up of 9.7 years, 14,723 participants died. The lowest risks of death related to BMI were observed at a BMI of 25.3 for men and 24.3 for women. After adjustment for BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were strongly associated with the risk of death. Relative risks among men and women in the highest quintile of waist circumference were 2.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80 to 2.33) and 1.78 (95% CI, 1.56 to 2.04), respectively, and in the highest quintile of waist-to-hip ratio, the relative risks were 1.68 (95% CI, 1.53 to 1.84) and 1.51 (95% CI, 1.37 to 1.66), respectively. BMI remained significantly associated with the risk of death in models that included waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio (P〈0.001). CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that both general adiposity and abdominal adiposity are associated with the risk of death and support the use of waist circumference or waist-tohip ratio in addition to BMI in assessing the risk of death
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19005195
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  • 7
    Keywords: CANCER ; BLOOD ; COHORT ; cohort studies ; cohort study ; POPULATION ; RISK ; MARKER ; BIOMARKERS ; colon ; ASSOCIATION ; NO ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; colorectal cancer ; MEN ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; cancer risk ; FRANCE ; COLON-CANCER ; MULTIVARIATE ; UNITED-STATES ; case-control studies ; GLUCOSE ; nutrition ; BETA-CELL FUNCTION ; ONCOLOGY ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; RE ; INCREASE ; LEVEL ; biomarker ; INSULIN-RESISTANCE ; metabolic syndrome ; USA ; prospective ; cancer research ; CANCER-RISK ; NOV ; HEMOGLOBIN ; TYPE-2 DIABETES-MELLITUS ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer ; CHRONIC OXIDATIVE STRESS ; GLUCOSE TOXICITY ; RECTAL CANCERS ; SERUM C-PEPTIDE
    Abstract: Although large-scale prospective cohort studies have related hyperglycemia to increased risk of cancer overall, studies specifically on colorectal cancer have been generally small. We investigated the association between prediagnostic levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a marker for average glucose level in blood, and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. One thousand and twenty-six incident colorectal cancer cases (561 men and 465 women) and 1,026 matched controls were eligible for the study. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORS) adjusted for possible confounders. Increasing HbA1c percentages were statistically significantly associated with a mild increase in colorectal cancer risk in the whole population [OR, 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01,1.19 for a 10% increase in HbA1c]. In women, increasing HbA1c percentages were associated with a statistically significant increase in colorectal cancer risk (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.32 for a 10% increase in HbA1c) and with a borderline statistically significant increase in rectum cancer (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.99,1.50 for a 10% increase in HbA1c). No significant association with cancer risk was observed in men. The results of the current study suggest a mild implication of hyperglycemia in colorectal cancer, which seems more important in women than in men, and more for cancer of the rectum than of the colon. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17(11):3108-15)
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18990751
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  • 8
    Keywords: ENERGIES ; CANCER ; Germany ; MODEL ; MODELS ; PROSTATE ; FOLLOW-UP ; INFORMATION ; COHORT ; RISK ; RISKS ; ASSOCIATION ; NO ; HEALTH ; PLASMA ; ENERGY ; AGE ; MEN ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; smoking ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; ethanol ; MULTIVARIATE ; RECRUITMENT ; ALCOHOL ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; CONSUMPTION ; nutrition ; RELATIVE RISK ; ONCOLOGY ; WEIGHT ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; HEIGHT ; biomarker ; USA ; cancer research ; RISK-FACTOR ; MIDDLE-AGED MEN ; energy intake ; WINE ; BEVERAGES
    Abstract: Alcohol is a risk factor for several types of cancer. However, the results for prostate cancer have been inconsistent, with most studies showing no association. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, detailed information were collected from 142,607 male participants on the intake of alcoholic beverages at recruitment (for 100% of the cohort) and over lifetime (for 76% of the cohort) between 1992 and 2000. During a median follow-up of 8.7 years, 2,655 prostate cancer cases were observed. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association of alcohol consumption at recruitment and average lifetime alcohol consumption with prostate cancer adjusted for age, center, smoking, height, weight, physical activity, and nonalcohol energy intake. Overall, neither alcohol consumption at baseline nor average lifetime alcohol consumption was associated with the risk for prostate cancer in this cohort of men. Men who consumed 〉= 60 g alcohol per day had a relative risk of 0.88 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.72-1.081 compared with men with an intake of 0.1-4.9 g/d; the respective relative risk for average lifetime intake was 1.09 (95% CI, 0.86-1.39). For advanced prostate cancer (n=537), the relative risks for 〉= 60 and 0.1-4.9 g alcohol per day at baseline were 0.98 (95% CI, 0.66-1.44) and 1.28 (95% CI, 0.79-2-07), respectively, for average lifetime intake. No statistically significant association was observed for alcohol intake from specific alcoholic beverages. Our results indicate no association between the consumption of alcohol and prostate cancer in this cohort of European men
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18483352
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  • 9
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; BLOOD ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; BIOMARKERS ; colon ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; VARIANTS ; ADENOMAS ; HEALTH ; colorectal cancer ; REDUCED RISK ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; GENOTYPES ; COLON-CANCER ; POPULATIONS ; UNITED-STATES ; case-control studies ; CALCIUM ; nutrition ; RECTAL-CANCER ; SERUM ; case control study ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; colon cancer ; VARIANT ; interaction ; LEVEL ; biomarker ; EPIDEMIOLOGIC EVIDENCE ; GENOTYPE ; USA ; prospective ; rectal cancer ; cancer research ; colorectal ; vitamin D ; VITAMIN-D ; LOGISTIC-REGRESSION ; D METABOLITES ; vitamin D receptor ; 25-HYDROXYVITAMIN-D ; RECTAL CANCERS ; Genetic ; VITAMIN ; CONFIDENCE ; CRC ; Logistic regression ; D-RECEPTOR ; DIETARY CALCIUM
    Abstract: Increased levels of vitamin D and calcium may play a protective role in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. It has been suggested that these effects may be mediated by genetic variants of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the calcium sensing receptor (CASR). However, current epidemiologic evidence from European populations for a role of these genes in CRC risk is scarce. In addition, it is not clear whether these genes may modulate CRC risk independently or by interaction with blood vitamin D concentration wild-type bb, the BB genotype of the VDR BsmI polymorphism was associated with a reduced risk of CRC [RR, 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.59-0.98). The association was observed for colon cancer (RR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.45-0.95) but not rectal cancer (RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.62-1.49). The Fok1 and CASR genotypes were not associated with CRC risk in thisand level of dietary calcium intake. A case-control study was conducted nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. CRC cases (1,248) were identified and matched to 1,248 control subjects. Genotyping for the VDR (BsmI: rs1544410; Fok1: rs2228570) and CASR (rs1801725) genes was done by Taqman, and serum vitamin D (25OHD) concentrations were measured. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the incidence rate ratio (RR). Compared with the study. No interactions were noted for any of the polymorphisms with serum 25OHD concentration or level of dietary calcium. These results confirm a role for the BsmI polymorphism of the VDR gene in CRC risk, independent of serum 25OHD concentration and dietary calcium intake. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(9):2485-91)
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19706842
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; cohort study ; RISK ; PROTEIN ; DIFFERENTIATION ; BREAST-CANCER ; AGE ; nutrition ; pancreatic cancer ; CELL-GROWTH ; FACTOR-ALPHA ; IGF-I ; EPIC PROJECT ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; SERUM-LEVELS ; C-PEPTIDE ; IGFBP-3 ; MALE SMOKERS ; FACTOR BINDING PROTEIN-3 ; prospective cohorts
    Abstract: Background:Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (BPs) regulate cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, and may have a role in the aetiology of various cancers. Information on their role in pancreatic cancer is limited and was examined here in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.Methods:Serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 422 cases and 422 controls matched on age, sex, study centre, recruitment date, and time since last meal. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for confounding variables.Results:Neither circulating levels of IGF-I (OR=1.21, 95% CI 0.75-1.93 for top vs bottom quartile, P-trend 0.301), IGFBP-3 (OR=1.00, 95% CI 0.66-1.51, P-trend 0.79), nor the molar IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio, an indicator of free IGF-I level (OR=1.22, 95% CI 0.75-1.97, P-trend 0.27), were statistically significantly associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer. In a cross-classification, however, a high concentration of IGF-I with concurrently low levels of IGFBP-3 was related to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (OR=1.72, 95% CI 1.05-2.83; P-interaction=0.154).Conclusion:On the basis of these results, circulating levels of components of the IGF axis do not appear to be the risk factors for pancreatic cancer. However, on the basis of the results of a subanalysis, it cannot be excluded that a relatively large amount of IGF-1 together with very low levels of IGFBP-3 might still be associated with an increase in pancreatic cancer risk.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22315049
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