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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; INHIBITION ; DIFFERENTIATION ; MICE ; inflammation ; REGULATORY T-CELLS ; INDOLEAMINE 2,3-DIOXYGENASE ; kynurenine ; AH RECEPTOR ; TRYPTOPHAN 2,3-DIOXYGENASE
    Abstract: Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) by environmental xenobiotic toxic chemicals, for instance 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin), has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes such as embryogenesis, transformation, tumorigenesis and inflammation. But the identity of an endogenous ligand activating the AHR under physiological conditions in the absence of environmental toxic chemicals is still unknown. Here we identify the tryptophan (Trp) catabolite kynurenine (Kyn) as an endogenous ligand of the human AHR that is constitutively generated by human tumour cells via tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), a liver- and neuron-derived Trp-degrading enzyme not yet implicated in cancer biology. TDO-derived Kyn suppresses antitumour immune responses and promotes tumour-cell survival and motility through the AHR in an autocrine/paracrine fashion. The TDO-AHR pathway is active in human brain tumours and is associated with malignant progression and poor survival. Because Kyn is produced during cancer progression and inflammation in the local microenvironment in amounts sufficient for activating the human AHR, these results provide evidence for a previously unidentified pathophysiological function of the AHR with profound implications for cancer and immune biology.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21976023
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  • 2
    Keywords: GROWTH-FACTOR-BETA ; HUMAN GLIOBLASTOMA CELLS ; TGF-BETA ; REGULATORY T-CELLS ; INDOLEAMINE 2,3-DIOXYGENASE ; HUMAN-MALIGNANT GLIOMA ; NEWLY-DIAGNOSED GLIOBLASTOMA ; I KINASE INHIBITOR ; TUMORAL IMMUNE RESISTANCE ; HUMAN-BRAIN TUMORS
    Abstract: Gliomas have been viewed for decades as inaccessible for a meaningful antitumor immune response as they grow in a sanctuary site protected from infiltrating immune cells. Moreover, the glioma microenvironment constitutes a hostile environment for an efficient antitumor immune response as glioma-derived factors such as transforming growth factor beta and catabolites of the essential amino acid tryptophan paralyze T-cell function. There is growing evidence from preclinical and clinical studies that a meaningful antitumor immunity exists in glioma patients and that it can be activated by vaccination strategies. As a consequence, the concept of glioma immunotherapy appears to be experiencing a renaissance with the first phase 3 randomized immunotherapy trials entering the clinical arena. On the basis of encouraging results from other tumor entities using immunostimulatory approaches by blocking endogenous T-cell suppressive pathways mediated by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 or programmed cell death protein 1/programmed cell death protein 1 ligand 1 with humanized antibodies, there is now a realistic and promising option to combine active immunotherapy with agents blocking the immunosuppressive microenvironment in patients with gliomas to allow a peripheral antitumor immune response induced by vaccination to become effective. Here we review the current clinical and preclinical evidence of antimicroenvironment immunotherapeutic strategies in gliomas.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24604058
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