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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; LUNG ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; incidence ; CONSUMPTION ; INEQUALITIES ; CANCER INCIDENCE
    Type of Publication: Journal article epub ahead of print
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; FOLLOW-UP ; LUNG-CANCER ; COHORT ; RISK ; MECHANISM ; mechanisms ; ASSOCIATION ; FREQUENCY ; ACID ; ACIDS ; WOMEN ; fatty acids ; FATTY-ACIDS ; DIETARY ; PREVALENCE ; OXIDATIVE STRESS ; ANTIOXIDANT ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ; nutrition ; QUESTIONNAIRE ; questionnaires ; SMOKERS ; antioxidants ; FOOD ; DIETARY-INTAKE ; WEST-GERMANY ; asthma ; antioxidants,diet,EPIC,fatty acids,hay fever ; ATOPY ; BETA-CAROTENE ; EAST-GERMANY ; EPIC-GERMANY ; FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE ; FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE ; NUTRIENTS ; VITAMIN-E
    Abstract: Background: The objective of the investigation was to explore in a prospective study the associations between dietary intake of fatty acids, antioxidants and hay fever manifestation in adulthood.Methods: Three hundred and thirty-four hay fever cases with adult onset of clinical symptoms from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heidelberg cohort were identified during follow-up and matched with 1336 controls. Dietary intake data were obtained by means of validated food frequency questionnaires. The influence of dietary fatty acid and vitamin intake on hay fever risk was estimated by means of unconditional logistic regression.Results: High intake of oleic acid was positively associated with hay fever [odds ratio (OR): 2.86, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 1.22-6.70], whereas high intake of eicosapentaenoic acid was inversely related to hay fever (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22-0.93). Furthermore, high beta-carotene intake increased the risk of hay fever (OR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.09-2.63) while increasing intake of vitamin E was a protective factor (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.17-0.85). In grouped analyses, the effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E were mainly observed among women and ex-/current-smokers; in these subgroups, linoleic acid increased the risk of hay fever.Conclusions: In conclusion, the present results provide further evidence that dietary factors might affect the risk of clinical manifestation of hay fever. However, the effects in smokers and women may suggest different biological mechanisms for the investigated nutrients, which need further research
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14616103
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  • 3
    Keywords: measurement ; CANCER ; Germany ; COHORT ; INDEX ; ASSOCIATION ; PLASMA ; AGE ; WOMEN ; MEN ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; MALES ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; MARKERS ; SWEDEN ; REGION ; REGIONS ; NETHERLANDS ; ALCOHOL ; GREECE ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ; FRUIT ; nutrition ; EUROPE ; antioxidants ; DENMARK ; BETA-CAROTENE ; VITAMIN-E ; ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL ; alpha-carotene ; beta-cryptoxanthin ; carotenoids ; lutein ; LYCOPENE ; MASS INDEX ; MASSES ; PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY ; RETINOL ; SEASONAL-VARIATION ; SERUM CONCENTRATIONS ; zeaxanthin
    Abstract: Background: In addition to their possible direct biological effects, plasma carotenoids can be used as biochemical markers of fruit and vegetable consumption for identifying diet-disease associations in epidemiological studies. Few studies have compared levels of these carotenoids between countries in Europe. Objective: Our aim was to assess the variability of plasma carotenoid levels within the cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Plasma levels of six carotenoids-alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin-were measured cross-sectionally in 3043 study subjects from 16 regions in nine European countries. We investigated the relative influence of gender, season, age, body mass index (BMI), alcohol intake and smoking status on plasma levels of the carotenoids. Results: Mean plasma level of the sum of the six carotenoids varied twofold between regions (1.35 mumol l(-1) for men in Malmo, Sweden vs. 2.79 mumol l(-1) for men in Ragusa/Naples, Italy; 1.61 mumol l(-1) for women in The Netherlands vs. 3.52 mumol l(-1) in Ragusa/Naples, Italy). Mean levels of individual carotenoids varied up to fourfold (alpha-carotene: 0.06 mumol l(-1) for men in Murcia, Spain vs. 0.25 mumol l(-1) for vegetarian men living in the UK). In multivariate regression analyses, region was the most important predictor of total plasma carotenoid level (partial R-2=27.3%), followed by BMI (partial R-2=5.2%), gender (partial R-2=2.7%) and smoking status (partial R-2=2.8%). Females had higher total carotenoid levels than males across Europe. Conclusions: Plasma levels of carotenoids vary substantially between 16 different regions in Italy, Greece, Spain, France, Germany, the UK, Sweden, Denmark and The Netherlands. Compared with region of residence, the other demographic and lifestyle factors and laboratory measurements have limited predictive value for plasma carotenoid levels in Europe
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15369608
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; tumor ; Germany ; human ; INFORMATION ; NEW-YORK ; POPULATION ; RISK ; TUMORS ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; BREAST-CANCER ; hormone ; AGE ; POPULATIONS ; UNITED-STATES ; urinary estrogen metabolites ; FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; AGE 50 ; GENISTEIN CONTENT ; PHYTO-ESTROGENS ; RECEPTOR-POSITIVE TUMORS ; RELATIVE VALIDITY ; SERUM ENTEROLACTONE CONCENTRATION ; WESTERN DISEASES
    Abstract: A diet high in isoflavonoids (soy) is associated with lower breast cancer risk in Asian populations. Due to the low soy intake, dietary lignans may be the more important phytoestrogen class in Western populations. We used a population-based case-control study of breast cancer by age 50 in southern Germany to evaluate the association between dietary intake of different phytoestrogens and premenopausal breast cancer risk. Dietary information was collected from 278 premenopausal cases and 666 age-matched controls, using a validated FFQ. Using multivariate logistic regression, the highest vs. lowest intake quartiles of daidzein and genistein yielded significantly reduced ORs (95% CI) for breast cancer risk of 0.62 (0.40-0.95) and 0.47 (0.29-0.74), respectively. The protective effects of daidzein and genistein were found only for hormone receptor-positive tumors. High intake of other isoflavonoids, e.g., formorionetin and biochanin A, as well as the sum of isoflavonoids were not associated with a decrease in risk. Breast cancer risk significantly decreased with a high intake of the plant lignan matairesinol (OR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.37-0.94) but not secoisolariciresinol or the sum of plant lignans. However, both estimated mammalian lignans, enterodiol and enterolactone, were inversely associated with breast cancer risk, with ORs (95% CI) of 0.61 (0.39-0.98) and 0.57 (0.35-0.92), respectively. No effect was found for total phytoestrogen intake. Our results suggest an important role of dietary intake of daidzein and genistein, despite low levels, as well as of matairesinol and mammalian lignans to reduce premenopausal breast cancer risk in this study population. (C) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15069695
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  • 5
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; proliferation ; tumor ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; PATHWAY ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; TUMORS ; RELEASE ; PATIENT ; BINDING ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; VARIANTS ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; hormone ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; cancer risk ; case-control studies ; SOMATOSTATIN ; CANCER PATIENTS ; nutrition ; FACTOR-I ; BINDING PROTEIN ; SERUM ; SINGLE ; IGF-I ; BINDING-PROTEIN ; case-control study ; ASSOCIATIONS ; RE ; VARIANT ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; cell proliferation ; development ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; BINDING PROTEIN-3 ; LEVEL ; case control studies ; GENOTYPE DATA ; FACTOR (IGF)-I ; PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; IGFBP3 ; insulin-like growth factor ; PLASMA-LEVELS ; SERUM-LEVELS
    Abstract: Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) stimulates cell proliferation and can enhance the development of tumors in different organs. Epidemiologic studies have shown that an elevated level of circulating IGF-I is associated to increased risk of breast cancer as well as other cancers. Genetic variants affecting the release or biological action of growth hormone (GH), the main stimulator of IGF-I production, may predict circulating levels of IGF-I and have an effect on cancer risk. We tested this hypothesis with a large case-control study of 807 breast cancer patients and 1,588 matched control subjects nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. We genotyped 22 common single nucleotide polymorphisms in 10 genes involved in GH production and action (GHRH, GHRHR, SST, SSTR1-SSTR5, POU1F1, and GH1), and in parallel, we measured serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3, its major binding protein, in samples of cases and controls. SST and SSTR2 polymorphisms showed weak but statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk. SSTR5 polymorphisms were associated with IGF-I levels, whereas one polymorphism in GHRHR and one in POU1F1 were associated with IGFBP-3 levels. Our conclusion is that common genetic variation in the GH synthesis pathway, as measured by single nucleotide polymorphisms selected in the present study, is not a major determinant of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 circulating levels, and it does not play a major role in altering breast cancer risk
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16214911
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; BLOOD ; hormone ; WOMEN ; COUNTRIES ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; DIET ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; EPIC study ; nutrition ; VEGETABLES ; LYCOPENE ; RE ; TOMATO ; LEVEL ; FRUITS ; JUICE ; PLASMA CAROTENOID LEVELS
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16046733
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  • 7
    Keywords: ENERGIES ; CANCER ; MODEL ; FOLLOW-UP ; POPULATION ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; hormone ; ENERGY ; AGE ; WOMEN ; colorectal cancer ; MEN ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; smoking ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; cancer risk ; FISH ; FIBER ; COLON-CANCER ; DOSE-RESPONSE ; Jun ; DIET ; DIETARY ; UNITED-STATES ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; nutrition ; ASSOCIATIONS ; RE ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; EPIC CALIBRATION ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; INTERVAL ; TESTS ; alcohol consumption ; MEAT INTAKE ; DIETARY CARCINOGENS ; GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY ; N-NITROSATION ; RED MEAT
    Abstract: Background. Current evidence suggests that high red meat intake is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. High fish intake may be associated with a decreased risk, but the existing evidence is less convincing. Methods: We prospectively followed 478040 men and women from 10 European countries who were free of cancer at enrollment between 1992 and 1998. Information on diet and lifestyle was collected at baseline. After a mean follow-up of 4.8 years, 1329 incident colorectal cancers were documented. We examined the relationship between intakes of red and processed meat, poultry, and fish and colorectal cancer risk using a proportional hazards model adjusted for age, sex, energy (nonfat and fat sources), height, weight, work-related physical activity, smoking status, dietary fiber and folate, and alcohol consumption, stratified by center. A calibration substudy based on 36994 subjects was used to correct hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for diet measurement errors. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with intake of red and processed meat (highest [〉 160 g/day] versus lowest [〈 20 g/day] intake, HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.96 to 1.88; P-trend = .03) and inversely associated with intake of fish (〉 80 g/day versus 〈 10 g/day, HR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.88; P-trend 〈 .001), but was not related to poultry intake. Correcting for measurement error strengthened the associations between colorectal cancer and red and processed meat intake (per 100-g increase HR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.41, P-trend = .001 and HR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.19 to 2.02, P-trend = .001 before and after calibration, respectively) and for fish (per 100 g increase HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.57 to 0.87, P-trend 〈 .001 and HR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.77, P-trend = .003; before and after correction, respectively). In this study population, the absolute risk of development of colorectal cancer within 10 years for a study subject aged 50 years was 1.71% for the highest category of red and processed meat intake and 1.28% for the lowest category of intake and was 1.86% for subjects in the lowest category of fish intake and 1.28% for subjects in the highest category of fish intake. Conclusions: Our data confirm that colorectal cancer risk is positively associated with high consumption of red and processed meat and support an inverse association with fish intake
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15956652
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; LUNG ; EMPHYSEMA ; FOLLOW-UP ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; NETWORKS ; DEATH ; DISEASE ; DNA adducts ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; GENES ; TIME ; DNA ; AIR-POLLUTION ; ASSOCIATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; AGE ; REPAIR ; smoking ; leukemia ; bladder cancer ; BLADDER-CANCER ; cancer risk ; DAMAGE ; POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS ; DNA-DAMAGE ; RECRUITMENT ; ADDUCTS ; case-control studies ; EPIC ; nutrition ; QUESTIONNAIRE ; WHITE BLOOD-CELLS ; DNA-ADDUCTS ; case-control study ; DETERMINANTS ; monitoring ; GSTM1 ; LEVEL ; ADDUCT ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; DNA damage ; DNA ADDUCT ; ABILITY ; GENDER ; OUTDOOR AIR-POLLUTION ; OZONE
    Abstract: Objectives were to investigate prospectively the ability of DNA adducts to predict cancer and to study the determinants of adducts, especially air pollutants. DNA adducts were measured in a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC investigation. Cases included newly diagnosed lung cancer (n = 115), upper respiratory cancers (pharynx and larynx, n 82), bladder cancer (n = 124), leukemia (n = 166), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or emphysema deaths (n = 77) accrued after a median follow-up of 7 years among the EPIC former smokers and never-smokers. Three controls per case were matched for questionnaire analyses and two controls per case for laboratory analyses. Matching criteria were gender, age, smoking status, country of recruitment, and follow-up time. Individual exposure to air pollution was assessed using concentration data from monitoring stations in routine air quality monitoring networks. Leukocyte DNA adducts were analyzed blindly using (32)p postlabeling technique. Adducts were associated with the subsequent risk of lung cancer, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.86 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.88-3.931 when comparing detectable versus nondetectable adducts. The association with lung cancer was stronger in never-smokers (OR, 4.04; 95% CI, 1.06-15.42) and among the younger age groups. After exclusion of the cancers occurring in the first 36 months of follow-up, the OR was 4.16 (95% CI, 1.24-13.88). A positive association was found between DNA adducts and ozone (O-3) concentration. Our prospective study suggests that leukocyte DNA adducts may predict lung cancer risk of never-smokers. Besides, the association of DNA adduct levels with O-3 indicates a possible role for photochemical smog in determining DNA damage
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16140979
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; tumor ; Germany ; human ; MODEL ; MODELS ; COHORT ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; ovarian cancer ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; COUNTRIES ; cancer risk ; DIETARY ; CONSUMPTION ; nutrition ; QUESTIONNAIRE ; questionnaires ; VEGETABLES ; NUTRIENTS ; carotenoids ; DIETARY FACTORS ; DETERMINANTS ; SUBTYPE ; FRUITS ; PART ; PARTICIPANTS ; CANCER INCIDENCE ; ALLIUM VEGETABLES ; FOOD GROUPS
    Abstract: Objective: The association between consumption of fruit and vegetables and risk of ovarian cancer is still unclear from a prospective point of view. Methods: Female participants (n = 325,640) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, free of any cancer at baseline, were followed on average for 6.3 years to develop ovarian cancer. During 2,049,346 person-years, 581 verified cases of primary, invasive epithelial ovarian cancer were accrued. Consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as subgroups of vegetables, estimated from validated dietary questionnaires and calibrated thereafter, was related to ovarian cancer incidence in multivariable hazard regression models. Histologic subtype specific analyses were done. Results: Total intake of fruit and vegetables, separately or combined, as well as subgroups of vegetables (fruiting, root, leafy vegetables, cabbages) was unrelated to risk of ovarian cancer. A high intake of garlic/onion vegetables was associated with a borderline significant reduced risk of this cancer. The examination by histologic subtype indicated some differential effects of fruit and vegetable intake on ovarian cancer risk. Conclusion: Overall, a high intake of fruits and vegetables did not seem to protect from ovarian cancer. Garlic/onion vegetables may exert a beneficial effect. The study of the histologic subtype of the tumor warrants further investigation
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16284374
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; tumor ; CELL ; Germany ; liver ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; TISSUE ; TUMORS ; SURGERY ; PATIENT ; IMPACT ; ACID ; ACIDS ; MALIGNANCIES ; PATTERNS ; PLASMA ; AGE ; GAS ; fatty acids ; DIET ; IMPROVES ; SMALL-INTESTINE ; nutrition ; COMPLICATIONS ; FATTY-ACID ; MALIGNANCY ; PATTERN ; FRACTION ; LEADS ; PHOSPHOLIPIDS ; WEIGHT ; SUPPLEMENTATION ; TUMOR TISSUE ; LEVEL ; methods ; PLASMA-LEVELS ; TISSUE SAMPLES ; USA ; phospholipid ; uptake ; EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID ; ENTERAL NUTRITION ; EVALUATE ; GUT ; IMMUNONUTRITION ; MAJOR SURGERY ; PARENTERAL FISH-OIL ; POSTOPERATIVE TRAUMA ; TREATED RATS
    Abstract: Background: The uptake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into the liver, gut mucosa, and tumor tissue and plasma levels after preoperative administration of supplemented enteral nutrition was investigated in patients with malignancies of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The objective of the study was to evaluate the incorporation of preoperatively administrated PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into cell phospholipids. Methods: Patients undergoing major gastrointestinal surgery (n = 40) were prospectively randomized to receive a PUFA-supplemented liquid oral diet 5 days preoperatively or an isocaloric control diet. The planned diet intake was 1000 mL/d providing 3.7 g of PUFA. The diet was given in addition to the usual hospital diet. The phospholipid fractions in plasma were analyzed on the day of surgery. Tissue samples of liver, gut mucosa (small intestine), and tumor were taken during surgery and homogenized. EPA and DHA content was analyzed using liquid gas chromatography. Results: Both patient groups (PUFA group: n = 20; control group: n = 20) were similar in age, weight, and surgical procedures. As compared with the control group, the PUFA group had significantly increased levels of EPA in liver tissue (0.4 vs 1.3 weight %), gut mucosa (0.3 vs 1.0 weight %), and tumor tissue (0.3 vs 0.8 weight %). Also, the DHA levels in the PUFA group were significantly higher than the control group: liver tissue (4.1 vs 7.5 weight %), gut mucosa (2.1 vs 3.7 weight %) and tumor tissue (1.9 vs 4.2 weight %). Conclusions: This study suggests that administration of PUFA-enriched diets leads to increased incorporation of EPA and DHA not only in liver and gut mucosa tissue, but also in tumor tissue in patients with solid gastrointestinal tumors. Thus, preoperative administration of oral PUFA-enriched diets could have an impact on the postoperative inflammatory response after major abdominal surgery
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15961678
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