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  • REQUIRING PROLONGED OBSERVATION  (2)
  • RISK  (2)
  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; THERAPY ; INFORMATION ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; incidence ; RISK ; RISK-FACTORS ; BREAST ; BREAST-CANCER ; DESIGN ; AGE ; WOMEN ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; smoking ; cancer risk ; UNITED-STATES ; ALCOHOL ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; CONSUMPTION ; BIRTH COHORT ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; MASS INDEX ; ORAL-CONTRACEPTIVE USE ; REQUIRING PROLONGED OBSERVATION ; METAANALYSIS ; HORMONAL FACTORS ; ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASURES ; EPITHELIAL OVARIAN
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Only about half the studies that have collected information on the relevance of women's height and body mass index to their risk of developing ovarian cancer have published their results, and findings are inconsistent. Here, we bring together the worldwide evidence, published and unpublished, and describe these relationships. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Individual data on 25,157 women with ovarian cancer and 81,311 women without ovarian cancer from 47 epidemiological studies were collected, checked, and analysed centrally. Adjusted relative risks of ovarian cancer were calculated, by height and by body mass index. Ovarian cancer risk increased significantly with height and with body mass index, except in studies using hospital controls. For other study designs, the relative risk of ovarian cancer per 5 cm increase in height was 1.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.09; p〈0.001); this relationship did not vary significantly by women's age, year of birth, education, age at menarche, parity, menopausal status, smoking, alcohol consumption, having had a hysterectomy, having first degree relatives with ovarian or breast cancer, use of oral contraceptives, or use of menopausal hormone therapy. For body mass index, there was significant heterogeneity (p〈0.001) in the findings between ever-users and never-users of menopausal hormone therapy, but not by the 11 other factors listed above. The relative risk for ovarian cancer per 5 kg/m(2) increase in body mass index was 1.10 (95% CI, 1.07-1.13; p〈0.001) in never-users and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.92-0.99; p = 0.02) in ever-users of hormone therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian cancer is associated with height and, among never-users of hormone therapy, with body mass index. In high-income countries, both height and body mass index have been increasing in birth cohorts now developing the disease. If all other relevant factors had remained constant, then these increases in height and weight would be associated with a 3% increase in ovarian cancer incidence per decade. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22606070
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; SURVIVAL ; LUNG ; FOLLOW-UP ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; screening ; COHORT ; cohort study ; DEATH ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; BREAST ; BREAST-CANCER ; prevention ; NUMBER ; AGE ; WOMEN ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL ; smoking ; DIETARY ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; relapse ; PROGRAM ; RE ; NONSMOKING WOMEN ; ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO-SMOKE ; duration ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; survival analysis ; smoking cessation ; FACTOR INTERVENTION TRIAL ; UNITED-STATES POPULATIONS
    Abstract: PURPOSE: To determine the impact of smoking cessation on lung cancer mortality among women. METHODS: Survival analysis is used to assess the effect of smoking cessation on lung cancer death in the dietary cohort of 49,165 women aged 40 to 59 years enrolled in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study. RESULTS: During an average of 10.3 years of follow-up, 106 women died of lung cancer. The risk of lung cancer mortality among women who quit before age 50 (HR = 0.26; 95% CI, 0.13-0.55 among women who quit at ages 40-49) or quit in the previous 10 years (HR = 0.39; 95% CI, 0.22-0.69) is substantially lower than the risk among current smokers. Women who quit after age 40 or have quit for less than 20 years are at substantially higher risk of lung cancer mortality compared with never smokers. Both duration of smoking cessation and age at quitting have independent effects on lung cancer mortality, after controlling for number of cigarettes smoked per day and number of years smoked, as well as other potential confounding variables. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that programs and policies to promote early cessation of smoking and prevention of relapse should be a public health priority. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15780778
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  • 3
    Keywords: THERAPY ; PATIENT ; TRIALS ; AGE ; REPRODUCIBILITY ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; REQUIRING PROLONGED OBSERVATION ; RECALL ; COLLABORATIVE REANALYSIS ; SEX-HORMONES
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Menarche and menopause mark the onset and cessation, respectively, of ovarian activity associated with reproduction, and affect breast cancer risk. Our aim was to assess the strengths of their effects and determine whether they depend on characteristics of the tumours or the affected women. METHODS: Individual data from 117 epidemiological studies, including 118 964 women with invasive breast cancer and 306 091 without the disease, none of whom had used menopausal hormone therapy, were included in the analyses. We calculated adjusted relative risks (RRs) associated with menarche and menopause for breast cancer overall, and by tumour histology and by oestrogen receptor expression. FINDINGS: Breast cancer risk increased by a factor of 1.050 (95% CI 1.044-1.057; p〈0.0001) for every year younger at menarche, and independently by a smaller amount (1.029, 1.025-1.032; p〈0.0001), for every year older at menopause. Premenopausal women had a greater risk of breast cancer than postmenopausal women of an identical age (RR at age 45-54 years 1.43, 1.33-1.52, p〈0.001). All three of these associations were attenuated by increasing adiposity among postmenopausal women, but did not vary materially by women's year of birth, ethnic origin, childbearing history, smoking, alcohol consumption, or hormonal contraceptive use. All three associations were stronger for lobular than for ductal tumours (p〈0.006 for each comparison). The effect of menopause in women of an identical age and trends by age at menopause were stronger for oestrogen receptor-positive disease than for oestrogen receptor-negative disease (p〈0.01 for both comparisons). INTERPRETATION: The effects of menarche and menopause on breast cancer risk might not be acting merely by lengthening women's total number of reproductive years. Endogenous ovarian hormones are more relevant for oestrogen receptor-positive disease than for oestrogen receptor-negative disease and for lobular than for ductal tumours. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23084519
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