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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; SURVIVAL ; neoplasms ; PATHWAY ; RISK ; GENE ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST ; BREAST-CANCER ; METASTASIS ; POOR-PROGNOSIS ; HIGH-FREQUENCY ; GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY ; OVARIAN ; association study ; CORRELATE ; germline variation ; PIK3CA MUTATIONS ; PTEN LOSS
    Abstract: Background:Somatic mutations in phosphoinositide-3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) are frequent in breast tumours and have been associated with oestrogen receptor (ER) expression, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 overexpression, lymph node metastasis and poor survival. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between inherited variation in this oncogene and risk of breast cancer.Methods:A single-nucleotide polymorphism from the PIK3CA locus that was associated with breast cancer in a study of Caucasian breast cancer cases and controls from the Mayo Clinic (MCBCS) was genotyped in 5436 cases and 5280 controls from the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) study and in 30 949 cases and 29 788 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC).Results:Rs1607237 was significantly associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer in MCBCS, CGEMS and all studies of white Europeans combined (odds ratio (OR)=0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95-0.99, P=4.6 x 10(-3)), but did not reach significance in the BCAC replication study alone (OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.01, P=0.139).Conclusion:Common germline variation in PIK3CA does not have a strong influence on the risk of breast cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22033276
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; GROWTH ; POPULATION ; RISK ; TUMORS ; COMPLEX ; RISK-FACTORS ; BRCA1 ; ovarian cancer ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; CONSORTIUM ; CONFER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; COMMON VARIANTS ; TUMOR SUBTYPES ; 14Q24.1 RAD51L1
    Abstract: The 19p13.1 breast cancer susceptibility locus is a modifier of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers and is also associated with risk of ovarian cancer. Here we investigated 19p13.1 variation and risk of breast cancer subtypes, defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status, using 48,869 breast cancer cases and 49,787 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Variants from 19p13.1 were not associated with breast cancer overall or with ER-positive breast cancer but were significantly associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk [rs8170 Odds Ratio (OR)=1.10, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.05 - 1.15, p=3.49 x 10-5] and triple negative (TN) (ER, PR and HER2 negative) breast cancer [rs8170 OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.13 - 1.31, p=2.22 x 10-7]. However, rs8170 was no longer associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk when TN cases were excluded [OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.89 - 1.07, p=0.62]. In addition, a combined analysis of TN cases from BCAC and the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC) (n=3,566) identified a genome-wide significant association between rs8170 and TN breast cancer risk [OR=1.25, 95% CI 1.18 - 1.33, p=3.31 x 10-13]. Thus, 19p13.1 is the first triple negative-specific breast cancer risk locus and the first locus specific to a histological subtype defined by ER, PR, and HER2 to be identified. These findings provide convincing evidence that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer varies by tumor subtype and that triple negative tumors and other subtypes likely arise through distinct etiologic pathways.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22331459
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  • 3
    Keywords: CLASSIFICATION ; RISK ; VARIANTS ; PREVALENCE ; BRCA2 MUTATIONS ; YOUNG-WOMEN ; PALB2 ; next-generation ; SEQUENCING DATA ; UNCERTAIN SIGNIFICANCE
    Abstract: PURPOSE: Recent advances in DNA sequencing have led to the development of breast cancer susceptibility gene panels for germline genetic testing of patients. We assessed the frequency of mutations in 17 predisposition genes, including BRCA1 and BRCA2, in a large cohort of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) unselected for family history of breast or ovarian cancer to determine the utility of germline genetic testing for those with TNBC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with TNBC (N = 1,824) unselected for family history of breast or ovarian cancer were recruited through 12 studies, and germline DNA was sequenced to identify mutations. RESULTS: Deleterious mutations were identified in 14.6% of all patients. Of these, 11.2% had mutations in the BRCA1 (8.5%) and BRCA2 (2.7%) genes. Deleterious mutations in 15 other predisposition genes were detected in 3.7% of patients, with the majority observed in genes involved in homologous recombination, including PALB2 (1.2%) and BARD1, RAD51D, RAD51C, and BRIP1 (0.3% to 0.5%). Patients with TNBC with mutations were diagnosed at an earlier age (P 〈 .001) and had higher-grade tumors (P = .01) than those without mutations. CONCLUSION: Deleterious mutations in predisposition genes are present at high frequency in patients with TNBC unselected for family history of cancer. Mutation prevalence estimates suggest that patients with TNBC, regardless of age at diagnosis or family history of cancer, should be considered for germline genetic testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Although mutations in other predisposition genes are observed among patients with TNBC, better cancer risk estimates are needed before these mutations are used for clinical risk assessment in relatives.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25452441
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODELS ; POPULATION ; RISK ; VARIANTS ; BREAST ; BREAST-CANCER ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; PHENOTYPE ; PREVALENCE ; ESTROGEN-RECEPTOR ; GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY ; LOCI ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; CONFER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; Risk prediction
    Abstract: ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have demonstrated that common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are differentially associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. It is currently unknown how these alleles are associated with different breast cancer subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers defined by estrogen (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) status of the tumor. METHODS: We used genotype data on up to 11,421 BRCA1 and 7,080 BRCA2 carriers, of whom 4,310 had been affected with breast cancer and had information on either ER or PR status of the tumor, to assess the associations of twelve loci with breast cancer tumor characteristics. Associations were evaluated using a retrospective cohort approach. RESULTS: The results suggested stronger associations with ER-positive breast cancer than ER-negative for eleven loci in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Among BRCA1 carriers, SNP rs2981582 (FGFR2) exhibited the biggest difference based on ER status (per-allele HR for ER-positive=1.35, 95%CI:1.17-1.56 vs HR=0.91, 95%CI:0.85-0.98 for ER-negative, P-heterogeneity=6.5e-6). In contrast, SNP rs2046210 at 6q25.1 near ESR1 was primarily associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. In BRCA2 carriers, SNPs in FGFR2, TOX3, LSP1, SLC4A7/NEK10, 5p12, 2q35, and1p11.2 were significantly associated with ER-positive but not ER-negative disease. Similar results were observed when differentiating breast cancer cases by PR status. CONCLUSIONS: The associations of the twelve SNPs with risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers differ by ER-positive or ER-negative breast cancer status. The apparent differences in SNP associations between BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, and non-carriers, may be explicable by differences in the prevalence of tumor subtypes. As more risk modifying variants are identified, incorporating these associations into breast cancer subtype-specific risk models may improve clinical management for mutation carriers.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22053997
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