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  • RISK-FACTORS  (15)
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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; LUNG ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; METABOLISM ; TISSUE ; PATIENT ; RISK-FACTORS ; FREQUENCY ; polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; PROMOTER ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; WOMEN ; MEN ; risk factors ; smoking ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; cancer risk ; RISK FACTOR ; CYP3A4 ; LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUM ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; CARCINOMAS ; POLYMERASE-CHAIN-REACTION ; adenocarcinoma ; ADENOCARCINOMAS ; CARRIERS ; case-control studies ; CLINICAL PRESENTATION ; CYP3A,genetic polymorphism,lung cancer susceptibility,small cell lung cancer,LightCycler ; EXPRESSED HUMAN CYTOCHROME-P450S ; GENETIC VARIANT ; HUMAN LIVER-MICROSOMES ; PROSTATE TUMORS ; PROTEIN LEVELS ; squamous cell carcinoma ; TOBACCO
    Abstract: CYP3A isozymes are involved in tobacco carcinogen- and steroid-metabolism, and are expressed in human lung tissue showing interindividual variation in expression and activity. The CYP3A4* 1 B allele has been associated with a two-fold higher promoter activity and with high-grade prostate cancers. The very frequent intron 3 polymorphism in the CYP3A5 gene (CYP3A5*3) results in decreased CYP3A5 protein levels. A case-control study was conducted in 801 Caucasian lung cancer patients that included 330 adenocarcinomas, 260 squamous cell carcinomas, 171 small cell lung cancers (SCLC) and 432 Caucasian hospital-based controls. CYP3A-genotyping was performed by capillary polymerase chain reaction followed by fluorescence-based melting curve analysis. A significantly increased SCLC risk for CYP3A4* 1B allele carriers [odds ratio (OR) 2.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-4.55, P = 0.02] was found. After dividing cases and controls by gender, an increased lung cancer risk for CYP3A4* 1B carriers (OR 3.04, 95% CI 0.94-9.90, P= 0.06) for women but not for men (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.56-1.81) was revealed. Heavier smoking men (greater than or equal to 20 pack-years) with the CYP3A4* 1 B allele had a significant OR for lung cancer of 3.42 (95% CI 1.65-7.14, P= 0.001) compared to * 1A/1* 1A carriers with lower tobacco exposure (〈 20 pack-years). For women, the respective OR was 8.00 (95% CI 2.12-30.30, P = 0.005). Genotype frequencies were generally in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except for CYP3A5 where a greater than expected number of CYP3A5* 1 homozygotes was observed among cases (P = 0.006). In addition, we observed linkage disequilibrium of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 (P 〈 0.00001), but a nonsignificantly increased lung cancer risk was only found for homozygous CYP3A5* 1 allele carriers (OR 5.24,95% CI 0.85-102.28, P = 0.14) but not for heterozygotes. To confirm our observation that the CYP3A4* 1B allele increases SCLC risk and modifies the smoking-related lung cancer risk in a gender-specific manner, further studies, including CYP3A haplotype analysis, will be necessary. Pharmacogenetics 13:607-618 (C) 2003 Lippincott Williams Wilkins
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14515059
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; LUNG ; COMMON ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; HYBRIDIZATION ; DNA ; MECHANISM ; primary ; RISK-FACTORS ; mechanisms ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; NO ; AMPLIFICATION ; AGE ; DNA-REPAIR ; REPAIR ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; risk factors ; smoking ; PCR ; cancer risk ; DAMAGE ; RISK FACTOR ; REGION ; CARCINOGENS ; adenocarcinoma ; case-control studies ; squamous cell carcinoma ; INDIVIDUALS ; CANCER-RESEARCH ; SMOKERS ; NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION-REPAIR ; CELL CARCINOMA ; case control study ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; OCCUPATIONAL-EXPOSURE ; CARCINOGEN ; HEAVY ; LUNG ADENOCARCINOMA ; PIGMENTOSUM GROUP-A
    Abstract: Polymorphisms of genes coding for DNA repair can affect lung cancer risk. A common single nucleotide (-4) G-to-A polymorphism was identified previously in the 5' untranslated region of the XPA gene. In a case-control study in European Caucasians, the influence of this polymorphism on primary lung cancer risk overall and according to histologic subtypes was investigated. Four hundred sixty-three lung cancer cases (including 204 adenocarcinoma and 212 squamous cell carcinoma) and 460 tumor-free hospital controls were investigated using PCR amplification and melting point analysis of sequence-specific hybridization probes. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated by multiple logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, gender, smoking habits, and occupational exposure and showed a slightly enhanced risk for all lung cancer cases as well as for squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cases. Gene-environment interactions were analyzed with respect to smoking and occupational exposure. A nearly 3-fold increased risk for adenocarcinoma associated with the XPA AA genotype was observed for occupationally exposed individuals (OR, 2.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-6.14) and for heavy smokers (OR, 2.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-5.42). No genotype-dependent increase in OR was found for nonexposed individuals or those smoking 〈20 pack-years. The significant effect of the XPA polymorphism in heavy smokers and occupationally exposed individuals suggests an important gene-environment interaction for the XPA gene. The underlying mechanisms as to why AA homozygotes are predisposed to lung adenocarcinoma and which specific carcinogens are involved remains to be determined
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15598786
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; human ; RISK ; TIME ; ACTIVATION ; DNA ; RISK-FACTORS ; INDUCTION ; INTERVENTION ; CELL-LINES ; treatment ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; ASSAY ; risk factors ; (-)-epigallocatechin gallate ; ADP-RIBOSE POLYMERASE ; cancer risk ; COMET ASSAY ; DAMAGE ; EPIGALLOCATECHIN GALLATE ; genotoxicity ; GREEN TEA ; GROWTH-INHIBITION ; LYMPHOCYTES ; poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase ; POLY(ADP-RIBOSYL)ATION ; POLYPHENOLS ; QUERCETIN ; repair mechanisms ; RISK FACTOR ; tea catechins
    Abstract: With regard to a future use of tea polyphenols, in intervention trials with individuals at high cancer risk, the effects of the tea ingredient (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on poly(ADP- ribose) (PAR) levels and on DNA damage were investigated in human lymphocytes. A dose- and time-dependent elevation of both PAR formation as assessed by quantitative immunofluorescence analysis and DNA damage as assessed by the comet assay were observed after treatment with EGCG at 20, 40 and 80 muM for 10- 240 min. Maximum levels of PAR formation and of DNA damage were observed after 10 min at all concentrations tested. Increased PAR levels were still detectable by 240 min in the 40 and 80 muM groups. At the lowest concentration, which is near the physiological peak values found after tea ingestion, PAR formation was not correlated with DNA damage. Here, EGCG led to pronounced PAR levels, whereas the comet assay was almost negative. In contrast, such marked differences in time course and extent of both genotoxicity and PAR formation following EGCG treatment were not detected after gamma-irradiation. Our results suggest that the known chemopreventive effects of EGCG, the main constituent of tea, may be partly attributed to an induction of PAR formation, (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12504756
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; IRRADIATION ; radiotherapy ; Germany ; TOXICITY ; FOLLOW-UP ; INFORMATION ; COHORT ; LONG-TERM ; NEW-YORK ; RISK ; TISSUE ; SURGERY ; radiation ; TIME ; PATIENT ; RISK-FACTORS ; SKIN ; treatment ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; DIFFERENCE ; AGE ; risk factors ; smoking ; RECURRENCE ; PROGNOSTIC-FACTORS ; MULTIVARIATE ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; PROGNOSTIC FACTORS ; NORMAL TISSUE ; side effects ; CANCER PATIENTS ; PROGNOSTIC FACTOR ; COMPLICATIONS ; TELANGIECTASIA ; fibrosis ; ONCOLOGY ; REGRESSION ; RE ; INCREASE ; prospective studies ; CARCINOGEN-DNA ADDUCTS ; PROGNOSTIC-FACTOR ; development ; INTERVAL ; analysis ; USA ; prospective ; prospective study ; odds ratio ; RISK-FACTOR ; LOGISTIC-REGRESSION ; nonsmokers ; REPAIR GENES ; CLINICAL RADIOSENSITIVITY ; CONSERVATION THERAPY ; CONSERVING THERAPY ; cosmesis ; EORTC BOOST ; late side effects ; NO BOOST TRIAL ; POSTMASTECTOMY RADIOTHERAPY ; RADIATION-INJURY
    Abstract: Radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery is commonly applied to reduce recurrence of breast cancer but may cause acute and late side effects. To identify prognostic factors for the development of late toxicity after radiotherapy, we conducted a prospective study of breast cancer patients. We assessed late complications of radiotherapy and collected information on epidemiologic factors in a cohort of breast cancer patients who had received radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery. Among 416 patients with complete follow-up data, the association between possible risk factors and development of late complications was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. After a median follow-up time of 51 months, 131 (31.4%) patients presented with telangiectasia and 28 (6.7%) patients with fibrosis. We observed a strong association between development of telangiectasia and fibrosis (p 〈 0.01). Increasing age of the patient was a risk factor for both telangiectasia and fibrosis (p-value for trend 〈 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). Patients with acute skin toxicity (odds ratio (OR) 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-3.1) were at higher risk to develop telangiectasia. Long-term smoking was associated with a significant increase in risk of telangiectasia compared to non-smokers (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.6). Our study revealed several factors other than radiation dose that may predispose to late complications following radiotherapy. Further understanding of differences in response to irradiation may advance individualized treatment and improve cosmetic outcome
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17221151
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  • 5
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; tumor ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; LUNG ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; SYSTEM ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; PATIENT ; RISK-FACTORS ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; CYCLE ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; BREAST-CANCER ; risk factors ; smoking ; p53 ; cancer risk ; MUTATIONS ; TRANSFORMATION ; SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA ; adenocarcinoma ; case-control studies ; squamous cell carcinoma ; GASTRIC-CANCER ; DNA repair ; DNA-REPAIR GENES ; molecular epidemiology ; ONCOLOGY ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; RE ; TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR ; VARIANT ; INCREASE ; CARCINOGEN ; case control studies ; analysis ; SUPPRESSOR ; GENOTYPE ; adenocarcinoma of the lung ; HISTOLOGY ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; PROLINE ; SQUAMOUS-CELL ; INCREASES ; cell cycle control ; CODON-72 ; P53 POLYMORPHISM
    Abstract: Alterations in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis leading to malignant transformation could be caused by common genetic variants in tumor suppressor genes. The effects of the TP53 polymorphism Arg72Pro on lung cancer risk have been investigated in numerous studies with, however, conflicting results. In many studies, important risk modifiers such as smoking or tumor histology were not taken into account. We therefore investigated the combined effects of polymorphisms in TP53 (Arg72Pro) and p21/CDKN1A (Ser31Arg) and smoking on lung cancer risk. Our case-control study consisted of 405 patients with lung cancer, mainly squamous-cell carcinoma (185) and adenocarcinoma (177) and 404 unmatched tumor-free hospital controls. Multivariate regression analysis showed a moderate but statistically significant risk of lung cancer overall. and especially of squamous-cell carcinoma (OR, 1.65; CI, 1.10-2.47) for TP53 72Pro allele carriers. The risk was markedly increased in heavy smokers (〉 20 pack-years) with squamous-cell carcinoma (OR, 2.80 in patients homozygous for 72Pro; CI, 1.19-6.58), but not in tight smokers (〈= 20 pack-years). The results for the p21 Ser31Arg polymorphism suggested that 31Ser is a moderate-risk allele for squamous-cell carcinoma. Analysis of the combined effects of the two polymorphisms revealed a higher OR for TP53 72Pro carriers homozygous for p21 31Ser than for 72Pro carriers in general; this effect being most pronounced in heavy smokers with squamous-cell carcinoma (OR, 3.84; CI, 1.46-10.1). Our data indicate that the TP53 Arg72Pro polymorphism increases the risk for squamous-cell carcinoma mainly in heavy smokers. The observed interaction with smoking is biologically plausible as, for the 72Pro p53 variant, decreased apoptosis and extended G1 cell cycle arrest is reported after carcinogen exposure. Nevertheless, confirmation by further molecular and epidemiological studies is warranted. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17059853
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; BLOOD ; CELL LUNG-CANCER ; Germany ; PROSTATE ; THERAPY ; SUPPORT ; RISK ; DISTINCT ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; RNA ; transcription ; PATIENT ; DNA ; MESSENGER-RNA ; MARKER ; IMPACT ; primary ; prognosis ; RISK-FACTORS ; CARCINOGENESIS ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; VARIANTS ; lifestyle ; DIFFERENCE ; PLASMA ; REPAIR ; risk factors ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; MARKERS ; LYMPHOCYTES ; MDM2 ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; POLYMERASE-CHAIN-REACTION ; PREDICTION ; CANCER PATIENTS ; PERIPHERAL-BLOOD ; POLYMERASE CHAIN-REACTION ; NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION-REPAIR ; DNA repair ; TP53 ; BETA-CAROTENE ; molecular ; CHAIN ; ONCOLOGY ; REGRESSION ; RE ; TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR ; VARIANT ; THERAPIES ; mRNA ; LEVEL ; SUPPRESSOR ; GENOTYPE ; HAPLOTYPE ; OXIDATIVE DNA-DAMAGE ; RISK-FACTOR ; ENGLAND ; COEFFICIENTS ; quantitative ; outcome ; VALUES ; tumor suppressor ; MDM2 SNP309 ; genetic variants ; treatment outcome
    Abstract: Both genetic variants and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of DNA repair and tumor suppressor genes have been investigated as molecular markers for therapy outcome. However, the phenotypic impact of genetic variants often remained unclear, thus the rationale of their use in risk prediction may be limited. We therefore analyzed genetic variants together with anthropometric and lifestyle factors to see how these affect mRNA levels of ERCC1, MDM2 and TP53 in primary blood lymphocytes. mRNA expression was measured in 376 prostate cancer patients by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction after reverse transcription, and ERCC1 rs11615 T 〉 C, ERCC1 rs3212986 C 〉 A, MDM2 rs2279744 T 〉 G and TP53 rs17878362 (p53PIN3) polymorphisms were determined. Considerable interindividual differences in mRNA expression were found (coefficients of variation: ERCC1, 45%; MDM2, 43% and TP53, 35%). ERCC1 expression was positively correlated with plasma levels of beta-carotene (P = 0.03) and negatively correlated with canthaxanthin (P = 0.02) and lutein (P = 0.02). Overall, the polymorphisms affected mRNA expression only weakly. Carriers of a distinct ERCC1 haplotype (CC) showed, however, significantly lower expression values than non-carriers (P = 0.001). Applying logistic regression, we found that CC haplotype carriers had a 1.69-fold increased odds ratio (95% confidence interval: 1.06-2.71) for reduced ERCC1 mRNA levels. This low ERCC1 expression might be associated with reduced DNA repair and better therapy response. In summary, the association we have found between ERCC1 genotype and mRNA expression supports recent clinical observations that genetic variation in ERCC1 can affect treatment outcome and prognosis. Our study further revealed a modulating effect by nutritional factors
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18332046
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  • 7
    Keywords: brain ; CANCER ; IRRADIATION ; radiotherapy ; tumor ; Germany ; PROSTATE ; THERAPY ; TOXICITY ; COHORT ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; TISSUE ; TUMORS ; validation ; radiation ; PATIENT ; MARKER ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; BREAST ; MUTATION ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; MARKERS ; cancer risk ; RISK FACTOR ; HEAD ; NETHERLANDS ; NORMAL TISSUE ; NECK-CANCER ; brain tumor ; BRAIN-TUMORS ; head and neck cancer ; THERAPIES ; brain tumors ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCERS ; CANCER-RISK ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; Genetic ; Genome-wide association studies ; cellular response ; CELLULAR-RESPONSE ; BRAIN-TUMOR
    Abstract: Radiotherapy is an important weapon in the treatment of cancer, but adverse reactions developing in the co-irradiated normal tissue can be a threat for patients. Early reactions might disturb the usual application schedule and limit the radiation dose. Late appearing and degenerative reactions might reduce or destroy normal tissue function. Genetic markers conferring the ability to identify hyper-sensitive patients in advance would considerably improve therapy. Association studies on genetic variation and occurrence of side effects should help to identify such markers. This survey includes published studies and novel data from our own laboratory. It illustrates the presence of candidate polymorphisms in genes involved in the cellular response to irradiation which could be used as predictive markers for radiosensitivity in breast or prostate cancer patients. For other tumor types such as head and neck cancers or brain tumors, the available data are much more limited. In any case, further validation of these markers is needed in large patient cohorts with systematically recorded data on side effects and patient characteristics. Genetic variation contributing to radiosensitivity should be screened on a broader basis using newly developed, more comprehensive approaches such as genome-wide association studies
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19022265
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; IRRADIATION ; radiotherapy ; Germany ; THERAPY ; NEW-YORK ; RISK ; SURGERY ; radiation ; PATIENT ; DNA ; DONOR ; RISK-FACTORS ; INDUCTION ; SKIN ; fibroblasts ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; RADIATION-THERAPY ; ASSAY ; DNA-REPAIR ; REPAIR ; REPRODUCIBILITY ; risk factors ; cancer risk ; COMET ASSAY ; DAMAGE ; LYMPHOCYTES ; DNA repair ; radiation sensitivity ; alkaline single-cell microgel electrophoresis assay ; CELLULAR RADIOSENSITIVITY ; CHROMOSOMAL RADIOSENSITIVITY ; DNA repair capacity ; DOUBLE-STRAND BREAKS ; IN-VITRO RADIOSENSITIVITY ; NORMAL-TISSUE RADIOSENSITIVITY ; PERIPHERAL-BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES ; radiation effects ; radiosensitivity ; TELANGIECTASIA
    Abstract: Purpose: Repair of radiation-induced DNA damage plays a critical role for both the susceptibility of patients to side effects after radiotherapy and their subsequent cancer risk. The study objective was to evaluate whether DNA repair data determined in vitro are correlated with the occurrence of acute side effects during radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Breast cancer patients receiving radiation therapy after a breast- conserving surgery were recruited in a prospective epidemiologic study. As an indicator for clinical radiosensitivity, adverse reactions of the skin were recorded. Cryo-preserved lymphocytes from 113 study participants were gamma-irradiated with 5 Gy in vitro and analyzed using the alkaline comet assay. Reproducibility of the assay was determined by repeated analysis (n = 26) of cells from a healthy donor. A coefficient of variation of 0.3 was calculated. Results: The various parameters determined to characterize the individual DNA repair capacity showed large differences between patients. Eleven patients were identified with considerably enhanced DNA damage induction, and 7 patients exhibited severely reduced DNA repair capacity after 15 and 30 min. Six patients were considered as clinically radiosensitive, indicated by moist desquamation of the skin after a total radiation dose of about 50 Gy. Conclusions: Using the alkaline comet assay as described here, breast cancer patients were identified showing abnormal cellular radiation effects, but this repair deficiency corresponded only at a very limited extent to the acute radiation sensitivity of the skin. Because impaired DNA repair could be involved in the development of late irradiation effects, individuals exhibiting severely reduced DNA repair capacity should be followed for the development of late clinical symptoms. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12654430
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; AGENTS ; BLOOD ; Germany ; LUNG-CANCER ; EXPOSURE ; HISTORY ; MORTALITY ; occupation ; POPULATION ; RISK ; RISKS ; RISK-FACTORS ; FREQUENCY ; NUMBER ; AGE ; risk factors ; smoking ; cancer risk ; DOSE-RESPONSE ; SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA ; gene-environment interaction ; case-control studies ; TOBACCO ; ALCOHOL ; QUESTIONNAIRE ; questionnaires ; glutathione-S-transferase ; OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE ; AGENT ; case-control study ; population-based case-control study ; EMISSIONS ; CARCINOGEN ; laryngeal cancer ; GSTM1 ; GSTT1 ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; GENOTYPE ; ADJUSTMENT ; duration ; GENDER ; glutathione-S-transferases ; road construction workers
    Abstract: Primary risk factors for laryngeal cancer are smoking and alcohol. The relevance of occupational exposures in the etiology of laryngeal cancer is not yet clarified. Some studies have suggested various occupational agents as additional causal risk factors. A population-based case-control study 1:3 frequency matched by age and gender on laryngeal cancer was carried out in southwest Germany with 257 cases (236 males and 21 females between the ages of 37-80, histologically confirmed and diagnosed between January 5, 1998 and December 31, 2000) and 769 population controls (702 males, 67 females). Occupational exposures and other risk factors were obtained with face-to-face interviews using a detailed standardized questionnaire. The complete individual work history was assessed. A detailed assessment of work conditions was obtained by job-specific questionnaires for selected jobs known to be associated with exposure to potential carcinogens. A specific substance list was used as second method for exposure assessment. Blood samples were taken from all individuals for genotype analysis. A strong effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure on laryngeal cancer risk after adjustment for smoking and alcohol (odds ratio [OR] = 5.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6-17.1) was observed for concordant exposure classified with both methods, and a clear dose-response (p 〈 0.01 for linear trend) for exposure duration. Our findings are supported by risks associated with occupational groups in which this exposure is a priori considered likely. A differential effect by glutathione-S-transferases-M1 genotype was found, however, small numbers do not allow firm conclusions on effect modification. Our study contributes to classifying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a risk factor for laryngeal cancer. (C) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15810012
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; IONIZING-RADIATION ; radiotherapy ; BLOOD ; Germany ; THERAPY ; TOXICITY ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; transcription ; radiation ; PATIENT ; RESPONSES ; DNA ; RISK-FACTORS ; PATTERNS ; DNA-REPAIR ; REPAIR ; risk factors ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; PCR ; DAMAGE ; LYMPHOCYTES ; PROBES ; DNA-DAMAGE ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; RT-PCR ; INTENSITY-MODULATED RADIOTHERAPY ; sensitivity ; CANCER PATIENTS ; PERIPHERAL-BLOOD ; DNA repair ; CONSTITUTIVE EXPRESSION ; NORMAL-TISSUE RADIOSENSITIVITY ; PERIPHERAL-BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES ; radiosensitivity ; CLUSTER ; BRCA2 ; GRADE ; CLUSTER-ANALYSIS ; LEVEL ; DNA damage ; cluster analysis ; PROFILES ; EXPRESSION PATTERNS ; CRITERIA ; HUMAN-CELLS ; prospective ; GAMMA-IRRADIATION ; RISK-FACTOR ; SKIN REACTIONS ; peripheral blood ; GENOTOXIC STRESS ; gene expression profiles ; radio-resistance
    Abstract: Purpose: Repair of radiation-induced DNA damage is believed to play a critical role in the development of adverse reactions in radiotherapy patients. Constitutive mRNA expression of repair genes was investigated in such patients to analyze whether expression patterns are predictive for therapy-related acute side effects. Materials and methods: Prostate cancer patients (n = 406) receiving intensity-modulated radiotherapy were recruited in a prospective epidemiological study. Adverse effects were monitored during therapy using common toxicity criteria. For expression analyses, samples from 58 patients were selected according to their observed grade of clinical side effects to radiotherapy. Expression profiles were generated from peripheral blood lymphocytes using customized cDNA-arrays which carried probes for 143 DNA repair or repair-related genes. In addition, expression of selected genes was confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Constitutive mRNA expression profiles were analyzed for predicting acute clinical radiosensitivity or radio-resistance. Results: Cluster analysis identified 19 differentially expressed genes. Many of these genes are involved in DNA double strand break repair. Expression levels of these genes differed up to 7-fold from the mean of all patients whereas expression levels of housekeeping genes varied only up to 2-fold. High expression of the identified genes was associated with a lack of clinical radiation sensitivity thus indicating radio-resistance. Conclusions: Constitutive expression of DNA repair-related genes may affect the development of acute side effects in radiotherapy patients, and high expression levels of these genes seem to support protection from adverse reactions
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16966187
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