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  • Articles  (9)
  • Articles: DFG German National Licenses  (9)
  • Polymer and Materials Science  (5)
  • Rat vas deferens  (2)
  • TiO2  (2)
  • 1995-1999  (7)
  • 1975-1979  (2)
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  • Articles  (9)
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  • Articles: DFG German National Licenses  (9)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-4846
    Keywords: electrochromism ; coating ; nanoparticle ; sol-gel material ; WO3 ; Nb2O5 ; TiO2 ; CeO2 ; Fe2O3 ; mixed compound
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Electrochromism is defined as the persistent but reversible optical change (usually transmission) produced electrochemically. The preparation by the sol-gel process of thin films made of amorphous or crystalline nanoparticles of WO3, V2O5, Nb2O5, TiO2, CeO2, Fe2O3 and mixed compounds such as WO3-TiO2, CeO2-TiO2, CeO2-SnO2, have opened remarkable new opportunities for obtaining electrochromic layers exhibiting large optical transmission variation in the UV, visible or infrared range and acceptable kinetics under H+ or Li+ insertion. In this paper we give an overview of what has been recently achieved in this field, with emphasis for cathodic electrochromic coatings of Nb2O5 and TiO2 composition. Finally we stress the future developments in this fast growing field.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-4846
    Keywords: electrochromism ; coating ; nanoparticle ; sol-gel material ; WO3 ; Nb2O5 ; TiO2 ; CeO2 ; Fe2O3 ; mixed compound
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Electrochromism is defined as the persistent but reversible optical change (usually transmission) produced electrochemically. The preparation by the sol-gel process of thin films made of amorphous or crystalline nanoparticles of WO3, V2O5, Nb2O5, TiO2, CeO2, Fe2O3 and mixed compounds such as WO3−TiO2, CeO2−TiO2, CeO2−SnO2, have opened remarkable new opportunities for obtaining electrochromic layers exhibiting large optical transmission variation in the UV, visible or infrared range and acceptable kinetics under H+ or Li+ insertion. In this paper we give an overview of what has been recently achieved in this field, with emphasis for cathodic electrochromic coatings of Nb2O5 and TiO2 composition. Finally we stress the future developments in this fast growing field.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Angewandte Makromolekulare Chemie 47 (1975), S. 61-77 
    ISSN: 0003-3146
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: When the ozonisation of bulk or suspension poly(vinylchloride) is carried out in tetrachloroethane solution between 0-120°C the molecular weight decreases continuously and the rate of breaking of chains deduced from the intrinsic viscosity variation is constant under isothermal conditions. Whatever the time and temperature of ozonisation may be, at every breaking, β and α chlorinated acid groups are introduced which have been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, high resolution NMR spectroscopy and potentiometric titration in dimethylformamide. Besides these functions, peroxide groups have also been identified and their concentration has been determined for different times and temperatures of ozonisation.This study permits to propose two mechanisms to explain the breaking of chains. The first implies the previous dehydrochlorination of the polymer and the second the formation of unstable peroxides which by decomposition cause the breaking of chains.
    Notes: Quelle que soit la nature du polychlorure de vinyle (masse ou suspension) l'action de l'ozone en milieu homogène dans le tétrachloroéthane provoque la décroissance continue de la masse moléculaire dans le domaine de température 0-120°C et la vitesse de coupure des chaînes déduite des variations de viscosité est constante en conditions isothermes.Quels que soient le temps et la température d'ozonisation, à chaque point de coupure apparaissent des fonctions acides α et β chlorées qui ont été caractérisées par spectroscopie infra-rouge, RMN haute résolution et dosage potentiométrique en milieu diméthylformamide. Outre ces fonctions, des peroxydes ont égé également identifiés dans le polymère et on a suivi leur concentration en fonction des conditions d'ozonisation.Cette étude permet de proposer deux mécanismes pour expliquer la coupure des chaînes, l'un suppose une déhydrochloruration préalable du polymère et l'autre la formation de peroxydes instables qui en se décomposant provoqueraient la coupure des chaînes.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: polyethylene ; poly(butylene terephthalate) ; blend ; rheology ; Palierne's model ; morphology ; differential scanning calorimetry ; crystallization ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Crystallization at high supercooling of polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) droplets dispersed in a molten polyethylene (PE) matrix was investigated through rheological and DSC experiments. The Palierne's emulsion model was used as a theoretical framework for studying the viscoelastic behavior of the blends in different ranges of temperature: on the one hand, when the two polymers are molten (T 〉 225°C) and on the other hand, when PBT droplets are at high supercooling in the molten PE matrix (130°C 〈 T 〈 205°C). From rheological experimental evidences it was shown that molten and solidified droplets coexist at high supercooling. The Palierne's model was then successfully adapted to take into account the three phases (molten PE, molten PBT droplets, and solidified PBT droplets). The evolution of the behavior with the temperature is consistent with the growing amount of crystallized droplets. Moreover, a calculation taking into account the droplets size distribution and the number of nuclei is introduced to explain the crystallization behavior of three different blend ratios.© 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J. Polym. Sci. B Polym. Phys. 36: 2573-2585, 1998
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0360-6384
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Key words P2X Purinoceptor ; βγ-Methylene-L-ATP ; Rat vagus nerve ; Nodose ganglion neurones ; Rat vas deferens
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The effects of the putative selective P2X purinoceptor agonist, β,γ-methylene-L-adenosine 5′-triphosphate (βγme-L-ATP), were determined at rat neuronal and smooth muscle P2X purinoceptors. βγMe-L-ATP had no effect on the extracellularly recorded membrane potential of the rat isolated vagus nerve preparation at concentrations up to 300 μM. In contrast, the archetypal P2X purinoceptor agonist, α,β-methylene ATP (αβmeATP; 1–100 μM), produced concentration-related depolarisation responses with a mean EC50 value of 10.8 μM. The depolarising effects of αβmeATP were not attenuated by βγme-L-ATP (100 μM). In voltage clamp experiments on single nodose ganglion neurones, ATP (100 μM), but not βγme-L-ATP (1–300 μM), evoked rapid (〈20 ms onset) inward currents when applied using a concentration-clamp method. In receptor binding studies to rat brain membranes, βγme-D-ATP and αβmeATP competed with high affinity for [3H]αβmeATP binding sites, with mean pIC50 values of 7.7 and 8.3, respectively. However, βγme-L-ATP possessed low affinity for these sites and competed only at concentrations in excess of 10 μM (mean pIC50 value 4.1). In prostatic segments of the rat vas deferens, βγme-L-ATP (1–100 μM) and αβmeATP (0.3–100 μM) each produced concentration-related contractile responses with mean EC50 values of 17.1 and 3.6 μM, respectively. βγMe-L-ATP (1–10 μM) evoked fast inward currents in freshly dispersed vas deferens smooth muscle cells, indicative of an action at ligand-gated ion channels. Binding sites in vas deferens membranes labelled using 1 nM [3H]αβmeATP exhibited high affinity for βγme-L-ATP, αβmeATP and βγme-D-ATP with mean pIC50 values of 7.7, 8.4 and 7.3, respectively. These results indicate that βγme-L-ATP exhibits neither agonist nor antagonist properties at P2X purinoceptors on rat vagal neurones and possesses only very low affinity for [3H]αβmeATP binding sites in rat brain. In contrast, βγme-L-ATP is a potent, high affinity agonist at smooth muscle P2X purinoceptors of the rat vas deferens. This selective agonist action of βγme-L-ATP suggests that P2X purinoceptors in smooth muscle and neurones are different and represent distinct P2X purinoceptor subtypes.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: P2X Purinoceptor ; βγ-Methylene-l-ATP ; Rat vagus nerve ; Nodose ganglion neurones ; Rat vas deferens
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of the putative selective P2X purinoceptor agonist, β,γ-methylene-l-adenosine 5′-triphosphate (βγme-l-ATP), were determined at rat neuronal and smooth muscle P2X purinoceptors. βγMe-l-ATP had no effect on the extracellularly recorded membrane potential of the rat isolated vagus nerve preparation at concentrations up to 300 μM. In contrast, the archetypal P2X purinoceptor agonist, α, β methylene ATP (αβmeATP;1–100 μM), produced concentration-related depolarisation responses with a mean EC50 value of 10.8 μM. The depolarising effects of αβmeATP were not attenuated by βγme-l-ATP (100 μM). In voltage clamp experiments on single nodose ganglion neurones, ATP (100 μM), but not βγme-l.-ATP (1–300 μM), evoked rapid ( 〈 20 ms onset) inward currents when applied using a concentration-clamp method. In receptor binding studies to rat brain membranes, βγme-d-ATP and αβmeATP competed with high affinity for [3H]Lx βmeATP binding sites, with mean pIC50 values of 7.7 and 8.3, respectively. However, βγme-l-ATP possessed low affinity for these sites and competed only at concentrations in excess of 10 μM (mean pIC50 value 4.1). In prostatic segments of the rat vas deferens, βγme-l-ATP (1–100 μM) and αβmeATP (0.3–100 μM) each produced concentration-related contractile responses with mean EC50 values of 17.1 and 3.6 μM, respectively. βγMe-l-ATP (1–10 μM) evoked fast inward currents in freshly dispersed vas deferens smooth muscle cells, indicative of an action at ligand-gated ion channels. Binding sites in vas deferens membranes labelled using 1 nM [3H]αβmeATP exhibited high affinity for ββ γme-l-ATP, αβmeATP and βγme-d-ATP with mean PIC50 values of 7.7, 8.4 and 7.3, respectively. These results indicate that βγme-l-ATP exhibits neither agonist nor antagonist properties at P2X purinoceptors on rat vagal neurones and possesses only very low affinity for [3H]αβmeATP binding sites in rat brain. In contrast, βγme-l-ATP is a potent, high affinity agonist at smooth muscle P2X purinoceptors of the rat vas deferens. This selective agonist action of βγme-l-ATP suggests that P2X purinoceptors in smooth muscle and neurones are different and represent distinct P2X purinoceptor subtypes.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 58 (1995), S. 1393-1399 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Thermorheological properties of an incompatible polymer blend of polypropylene inclusions dispersed in a ethylene copolymer matrix were discussed from the emulsion model developed by Palierne. Due to the different rheological behaviors with temperature of the two phases, such a system proved to be a judicious blend in order to consider the special cases of the model applications: (1) the two phases are viscoelastic liquids, (2) the dispersed phase is a solid elastic assimilated to rigid spheres in comparison with viscoelastic liquid behavior of the matrix, and (3) the two phases are elastic solids. At low frequencies, the rheological behavior of the blend was not correctly predicted by the model. So interactions other than hydrodynamics can exist in the intrafacial region, and physical entanglements between the chains of the two constituents leading to topological interactions may be assumed at the interphase. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) (80/20 w/w) polymer blend was studied by mechanical spectroscopy. Two relaxations can be distinguished: in the glassy state, a very large secondary relaxation in the range of 100 K to 325 K which results from the combination of secondary relaxations of PVC and PMMA; and only one main relaxation at 364 K associated to the glass rubber transition. The relaxation spectrum in the range of the β relaxation has been described by a relaxation time distribution function based upon a Gaussian function and a series-parallel model. The α relaxation was studied by means of a theoretical approach for the nonelastic deformation of polymers. We found that the miscibility of this blend appears to be a function of the observation scale: the PVC/PMMA blend is heterogeneous at the scale of molecular movements involved for the β relaxation process but homogeneous at the scale of the chain segments responsible for the α relaxation dynamics. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
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