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  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (2)
  • Restriction maps  (2)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Restriction maps ; Gene organization ; Chloroplast DNA ; Inversion ; Asteraceae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We have cloned into plasmids 17 of 18 lettuce chloroplast DNA SacI fragments covering 96% of the genome. The cloned fragments were used to construct cleavage maps for 10 restriction enzymes for the chloroplast genomes of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Barnadesia caryophylla, two distantly related species in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). Both genomes are approximately 151 kb in size and contain a 25 kb inverted repeat. We also mapped the position and orientation of 37 chloroplast DNA genes. The mapping studies reveal that chloroplast DNAs of lettuce and Barnadesia differ by a 22 kb inversion in the large single copy region. Barnadesia has retained the primitive land plant genome arrangement, while the inversion has occurred in a lettuce lineage. The endpoints of the derived lettuce inversion were located by comparison to the well-characterized spinach and tobacco genomes. Both endpoints are located in intergenic spacers within tRNA gene clusters; one cluster being located downstream from the atpA gene and the other upstream from the psbD gene. The endpoint near the atpA gene is very close to one endpoint of a 20 kb inversion in wheat (Howe et al. 1983; Quigley and Weil 1985). Comparison of the restriction site maps gives an estimated sequence divergence of 3.7% for the lettuce and Barnadesia genomes. This value is relatively low compared to previous estimates for other angiosperm groups, suggesting a high degree of sequence conservation in the Asteraceae.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Southern blots ; Restriction maps ; Ribosomal RNA genes ; Introns ; Phylogenetic trees ; Boletaceae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Mapping studies were performed with 18 cloned probes on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 15 species ofSuillus and four species from three related genera of fleshy pore mushrooms (Boletaceae). WithinSuillus, mtDNAs vary in size from 36 to 121 kb, differ in gene order by only one major rearrangement, and have diverged in nucleotide sequence within the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene region by up to 2.9%. Three additional gene orders exist in related genera. Two of the three can be transformed into the predominantSuillus order by either one or two rearrangements. The fourth requires two to three rearrangements to be converted to any of the others. The minimum estimates of nucleotide divergence within the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene region vary from 8.3% to 11% in comparisons betweenSuillus and these related species. Trees based on restriction-site and size differences within the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA genes were consistent with the hypothesized sequence of genome rearrangements and provide suggestive evidence for a major expansion of the mitochondrial genome withinSuillus. Structural and sequence changes in mtDNA provided information about phylogenetic relationships within the Boletaceae.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    BioEssays 2 (1985), S. 263-267 
    ISSN: 0265-9247
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The small, relatively constant size and conservative evolution of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) make it an ideal molecule for tracing the evolutionary history of plant species. At lower taxonomic levels, cpDNA variation is easily and conveniently assayed by comparing restriction patterns and maps, while at higher taxonomic levels, DNA sequencing and inversion analysis are the methods of choice for comparing chloroplast genomes. The study of cpDNA variation has already yielded important new insights into the origin and evolution of many agriculturally important crop plants, and promises to significantly enhance our phylogenetic understanding of the major lines of descent among land plants and algae.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    BioEssays 17 (1995), S. 1005-1008 
    ISSN: 0265-9247
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The most common form of the CO2-fixing enzyme rubisco is a form I enzyme, heretofore found universally in oxygenic phototrophs (cyanobacteria and plastids) and widely in proteobacteria. Two groups(1-4), however, now report that in dinoflagellate plastids the usual form I rubisco has been replaced by the distantly related form II enzyme, known previously only from anaerobic proteobacteria. This raises the important question of how such an oxygensensitive rubisco could function in an aerobic organism. Moreover, the dinoflagellate rubisco has unusual molecular properties: it is encoded as a polyprotein, by nuclear (rather than plastid) genes, and these genes contain noncanonical spliceosomal introns. The nuclear location and alphaproteobacterial affinity of dinoflagellate rubisco genes hint at a possible mitochondrial origin and highlight the extraordinary richness of lateral gene transfers, both between and within organisms, that have occurred during rubisco evolution.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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