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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Hydrobiologia 147 (1987), S. 141-155 
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: Rotifera ; colony behavior ; feeding ; clearance rate ; predator-prey ; evolution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Coloniality in the phylum Rotifera is defined and reviewed. Only two families of rotifers contain truly colonial forms: Flosculariidae and Conochilidae (order Gnesiotrocha, suborder Flosculariacea). Most species form intraspecific colonies ranging in size from a few to about 200 individuals, but species that produce enormous colonies (〉 1000 individuals) are also known. All seven genera of the Flosculariidae contain species that form colonies to widely varying degrees (Beauchampia, Floscularia, Lacinularia, Limnias, Octotrocha, Ptygura, Sinantherina). All four species of the monogenetic Conochilidae (Conochilus) are colonial, but two species form colonies of only an adult and a few young. At least one other family (Philodinidae; Bdelloida) contains a species that exhibits a form of coloniality (Philodina megalotrocha). Two hypotheses that attempt to explain the adaptive significance of coloniality (Energetic Advantage and Predatory Avoidance) are reviewed and new information concerning the former is presented. Evolution of coloniality is discussed briefly.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: anisotropic crystals ; anatomy ; birefringent crystals ; embryo ; gut ; juvenile ; Monogononta ; polarizing filters ; polarizing microscopy ; Rotifera
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A systematic survey for the presence of birefringent (anisotropic) structures in rotifers was undertaken. Several common features of rotifers exhibit anisotropism (e.g. trophi & muscles). However, unusual anisotropic crystalline structures (ACS) were found in late stage embryos (i.e. possessing eyespots and trophi, and showing movement). ACS were found in 18 of 26 species of monogonont rotifers (comprising 11 genera of 5 families). In Sinantherina socialis, ACS were present in the lower gut as compact, spherical masses of minute crystals that slowly broke apart and disappeared within 20 hours of hatching. Although several authors have described the existence of refractive bodies in rotifers, to my knowledge this is the first report of their birefringent properties.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: Acanthocephala ; aschelminthes ; cladistics ; evolution ; Gnathostomulida ; phylogeny ; pseudocoelomates ; Rotifera
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We investigated phylogenetic relationships of phylum Rotifera using cladistic analysis to uncover all most-parsimonious trees from a data set comprising 60 morphological characters of nine taxa: one Acanthocephala, six Rotifera, and two outgroups (Turbellaria, Gnathostomulida). Analysis of our matrix yielded a single most-parsimonious tree. From our analysis we conclude the following: (1) Class Digononta is paraphyletic; (2) it is still premature to reject rotiferan monophyly; (3) the classification hierarchy that best conforms to this morphologically based, cladistic analysis is similar to several traditional schemes. In spite of these results, it is significant that this analysis yielded a tree that is incongruent with those trees developed from molecular data or by using the principles of evolutionary taxonomy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: cladistics ; computers ; evolution ; evolutionary trees ; Notholca ; orders ; phylogeny ; Rotifera ; synapomorphies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We investigated evolutionary relationships among orders in phylum Rotifera and among species in genus Notholca (Rotifera) by computing parsimonious cladograms. All of the most-parsimonious cladograms generated for the ordinal level confirm the view that class Monogononta, superclass Eurotatoria, and phylum Rotifera are monophyletic. Species within the genus Notholca were separated into six groups (clades), but some species have been defined based on highly variable characters not reliably studied using cladistics. Therefore, phenetic studies are warranted, especially for species possessing caudal processes.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Hydrobiologia 255-256 (1993), S. 491-493 
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: Acanthocephala ; evolution ; phylogeny ; Rotifera ; systematics ; taxonomy ; workshop
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: ambush predator ; Atrochidae ; behavior ; cannibalism ; Collothecacea ; Cupelopagis vorax ; predation ; predator-prey interactions ; sessile rotifer ; Rotifera
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract By rotating on a short, flexible, pedal stalk, Cupelopagis vorax captures prey that traverse the substratum to which this sessile rotifer attaches. Microvideographic analysis (including slow motion and freeze-frame) permitted us to examine some of the details of Cupelopagis foraging behavior. When undisturbed, Cupelopagis usually faces forward in a resting or neutral position (NP) with its unciliated infundibulum (corona) directed parallel to the surface of the substratum. However, vibrations produced by artificial means (fine pins) or small prey (protists) evoke unique behaviors in Cupelopagis. Our analysis of Cupelopagis foraging on two protozoan prey (Paramecium bursaria and a small, unidentified flagellate, SUF) indicates that this predator possesses a 360 ° encounter field (EF) biased towards the NP Size of the EF appears to be a function of both predator and prey size, but it extends at least 650 µm, as measured from the point of attachment of the predator's pedal stalk to the substratum. When a prey comes close to Cupelopagis, this predator can lean toward the organism, stretching forward on its pedal stalk and extending its corona over the prey in a swift motion (〈 0.5 s). Probability of capture after attack was a function of prey type (61.6% for P. bursaria and 41.5% for the SUF). Analysis of prey capture by Cupelopagis indicates that this predator has a handling time ranging from a few seconds to several minutes: 24.6 ± 16.8 s for P. bursaria (n= 274) and 34.6 ± 25.4 s for the SUF (n=111). Occasionally Cupelopagis sweeps part of the EF by retracting its corona, turning to the right or left (mean angle subtended ≈ 63 ° ± 42 °), unfolding the corona, and slowly returning to the original resting position. This behavior, termed surveillance, occurs in the presence or absence of prey. While not unique in its ability to detect water movements, Cupelopagis is the only rotifer known to exhibit specific behaviors to vibrations produced by potential prey.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: Acanthocephala ; aschelminthes ; cladistics ; evolution ; Gnathostomulida ; phylogeny ; pseudocoelomates ; Rotifera
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We investigated phylogenetic relationships of phylum Rotifera using cladistic analysis to uncover all most-parsimonious trees from a data set comprising 60 morphological characters of nine taxa: one Acanthocephala, six Rotifera, and two outgroups (Turbellaria, Gnathostomulida). Analysis of our matrix yielded a single most-parsimonious tree. From our analysis we conclude the following: (1) Class Digononta is paraphyletic; (2) it is still premature to reject rotiferan monophyly; (3) the classification hierarchy that best conforms to this morphologically based, cladistic analysis is similar to several traditional schemes. In spite of these results, it is significant that this analysis yielded a tree that is incongruent with those trees developed from molecular data or by using the principles of evolutionary taxonomy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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