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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; DIAGNOSIS ; COHORT ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; WOMEN ; OBESITY ; SWEDEN ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; leptin ; IGF-I ; case-control study ; WEIGHT ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; OVERWEIGHT ; prospective ; C-PEPTIDE ; SERUM ADIPONECTIN ; Adiponectin ; NORTHERN SWEDEN ; GLUCOSE-HOMEOSTASIS ; Glycated haemoglobin
    Abstract: It is hypothesized that insulin resistance and related metabolic factors may influence breast cancer risk, however the epidemiological evidence remains inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study nested in a prospective cohort in Northern Sweden, to clarify the associations of body mass index (BMI), leptin, adiponectin, C-peptide, and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) with breast cancer risk. We also investigated whether these associations may be modified by age at diagnosis, tumour stage, and oestrogen and progesterone receptor status. During follow-up, 561 women developed invasive breast cancer and 561 matched controls were selected. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) as estimates of relative risk, and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The associations of BMI, leptin and HbA1c with breast cancer risk differed significantly according to whether the tumour was diagnosed as stage I or stage II-IV (P (heterogeneity) all 〈 0.05). These factors were significantly inversely associated with risk in the group of stage I tumours, with ORs for top vs. bottom tertile for BMI of 0.48 (95% CI, 0.30-0.78, P (trend) = 0.004); leptin, 0.64 (95% CI, 0.41-1.00, P (trend) = 0.06); and HbA1c, 0.47 (95% CI, 0.28-0.80, P (trend) = 0.005). For stage II-IV tumours, there was a suggestion of an increased risk with higher levels of these factors. There were no significant differences in the associations of BMI, leptin, adiponectin, C-peptide and HbA1c with breast cancer risk in subgroups of age at diagnosis or tumour receptor status. This prospective study suggests that BMI, leptin and HbA1c influence breast tumour initiation and progression
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18330696
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; BLOOD ; carcinoma ; COHORT ; cohort studies ; cohort study ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; OBESITY ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; SWEDEN ; CARCINOMAS ; body mass index ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; WEIGHT ; BODY-SIZE ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; metabolic syndrome ; blood pressure ; SERUM-LEVELS ; prospective ; CORONARY HEART-DISEASE ; INCREASED RISK ; CANCERS ; CANCER-RISK ; CIRCULATING LEVELS ; C-PEPTIDE ; BODY-MASS ; endometrial neoplasms ; journals ; AGED NORWEGIAN MEN ; metabolic syndrome X
    Abstract: The authors examined the association between the metabolic syndrome and risk of incident endometnal and fatal uterine corpus cancer within a large prospective cohort study Approximately 290,000 women from Austria, Norway, and Sweden were enrolled during 1974-2005, with measurements of height, weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and circulating levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and tnglycendes Relative risks were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. The metabolic syndrome was assessed as a composite z score, as the standardized sum of z scores for body mass index, blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, and tnglycendes. A total of 917 endonnetnal carcinomas and 129 fatal cancers were identified Increased risks of incident endometnal carcinoma and fatal uterine corpus cancer were seen for the metabolic syndrome factors combined, as well as for individual factors (except for cholesterol) The relative risk of endometnal carcinoma for the metabolic syndrome was 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1 28, 1 46) per 1-unit increment of z score The positive associations between metabolic syndrome factors (both individually and combined) and endometrial carcinoma were confined to the heaviest women. The association between the metabolic syndrome and endometnal carcinoma risk seems to go beyond the risk conferred by obesity alone, particularly in women with a high body mass index
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20219764
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; BLOOD ; FOLLOW-UP ; CANCER MORTALITY ; COHORT ; DEATH ; DISEASE ; incidence ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; RISKS ; IMPACT ; RISK-FACTORS ; BIOMARKERS ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; prevention ; HEALTH ; AGE ; WOMEN ; OBESITY ; SWEDEN ; cancer risk ; HYPERTENSION ; PROJECT ; body mass index ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; ONCOLOGY ; REGRESSION ; WEIGHT ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; METAANALYSIS ; biomarker ; methods ; metabolic syndrome ; blood pressure ; CANCER INCIDENCE ; PREMENOPAUSAL ; INCREASED RISK ; CANCER-RISK ; CANCER-MORTALITY ; BODY-MASS ; breast cancer risk ; INTERVENTIONS ; COMPLETENESS ; REGRESSION DILUTION
    Abstract: Background: Few studies have assessed the metabolic syndrome (MetS) as an entity in relation to breast cancer risk, and results have been inconsistent. We aimed to examine the association between MetS factors (individually and combined) and risk of breast cancer incidence and mortality. Methods: Two hundred ninety thousand women from Austria, Norway, and Sweden were enrolled during 1974-2005, with measurements of height, weight, blood pressure, and levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Relative risks (RR) of breast cancer were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression for each MetS factor in quintiles and for standardized levels (z-scores) and for a composite z-score for the MetS. Results: There were 4,862 incident cases of breast cancer and 633 deaths from breast cancer identified. In women below age 50, there was a decreased risk of incident cancer for the MetS (per 1-unit increment of z-score; RR, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.90) as well as for the individual factors (except for glucose). The lowest risks were seen among the heaviest women. In women above age 60, there was an increased risk of breast cancer mortality for the MetS (RR, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.45) and for blood pressure and glucose. The strongest association with mortality was seen for increased glucose concentrations. Conclusions: The MetS was associated with a decreased risk of incident breast cancer in women below age 50 with high body mass index, and with an increased risk of breast cancer mortality in women above 60. Impact: Lifestyle interventions as recommended for cardiovascular disease prevention may be of value to prevent breast cancer mortality in postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 19(7); 1737-45. (C) 2010 AACR
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20615887
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