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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus ; Osmoregulation ; Proline betaine ; Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ; Coagulase-negative staphylococci
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Proline betaine is an osmoprotectant that is at least as effective as glycine betaine, and more effective than L-proline, for various strains of Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. 13C NMR studies revealed that proline betaine accumulated to high levels in osmotically stressed S. aureus, but was also detected in organisms grown in its presence in the absence of osmotic stress. Competition experiments indicated that proline betaine was taken up by the proline transport systems of S. aureus, but not by the high affinity glycine betaine transport system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus ; Gene regulation ; Epidermolytic toxin A ; Osmoregulation ; DNA supercoiling
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Transcriptional fusions were constructed between the promoter for the epidermolytic toxin A (eta) gene of Staphylococcus aureus and the luxAB and xylE reporter gene systems. The expression of the fusion products was found to be dependent upon the accessory gene regulator (agr) locus and was observed to increase significantly during the transition from the exponential to the stationary phase of growth. Furthermore the expression of the eta gene promoter was found to be osmotically regulated, with the expression levels of the eta fusions being inversely related to the osmolyte levels. The ability of environmental factors to influence DNA topology (and thence gene expression) was investigated. High osmolarity (0.7 M NaCl) resulted in an increase in the degree of negative supercoiling of plasmid DNA in the S. aureus strain 8325-4 (Agr+) but not in strain ISP546 (Agr−). Furthermore the eta promoter was strongly induced in S. aureus cultures grown in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of novobiocin, a DNA gyrase inhibitor. However this induction was independent of agr, suggesting that the eta promoter is subject to both agr-dependent (osmolarity, growth phase) and -independent (DNA topology) regulatory processes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1572-9699
    Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus ; Staphylococcus epidermidis ; heat shock response ; stress proteins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The major heat shock proteins of Staphylococcus aureus had apparent Mrs of 84,000, 76,000, and 60,000, and other prominent proteins of Mrs 66,000, 51,000, 43,000 and 24,000 were also induced. Staphylococcus epidermidis showed a similar response. These proteins were also induced by CdCl2, ethanol and apparently osmotic stress (1.71 M NaCl or 2.25 M sucrose). Most of the proteins sedimented with the membrane fraction, but the Mr 60,000 protein remained in the cytoplasm.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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