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  • Amphetamine  (2)
  • Substance P  (2)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Substance P ; Ventral mesencephalon ; Investigatory behavior ; Motor behavior ; Dopamine ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In the present experiments the behavioral response to substance P (SP) microinfusion into the ventral tegmental area (VTA), substantia nigra (SN), and sensorimotor cortex (CX) was investigated in detail. The experiments were carried out using an eight-hole box to measure exploratory behavior and a video monitor for the analysis of spontaneous motor behavior. When infused into the VTA, SP (0.125, 0.5, 3.0 μg) augmented the frequency and total duration of hole-pokes, and tended to diminish the mean duration of hole-pokes. The strategy and organization of responses, as measured by the order of hole-visits and hole-switching, were unchanged by SP and there was no indication of stereotypy, measured by the number of hole-pokes per hole-visit. The open-field analysis revealed a marked increase in locomotion and rearing, both in the periphery and center of the arena; grooming was decreased by SP. The behavioral profile following SN infusions of SP (3.0 μg) was similar to that elicited by VTA infusions, with the exception that center rearing was not enhanced. SP administration into cortex (3 μg) had no significant effect on any behavioral measures. It is hypothesized that SP infused into the ventral mesencephalon results in an enhancement of approach response tendencies, suggesting that endogenous SP in this region may regulate spontaneous behavior. The possibility of an interaction between SP and meso-telencephalic dopamine neurons is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; Apomorphine ; Dopamine ; Exploration ; Locomotor activity ; Hole-board ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In the present experiments, the effects of a wide range of doses of d-amphetamine and apomorphine were studied on investigatory behavior in an automated eight-hole box. Amphetamine (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/kg) increased frequency and total duration of responses, and decreased mean duration in a dose-dependent manner. The strategy and organization of responses, as measured by the order of hole-visits and hole-switching, were unchanged at lower doses of amphetamine but were altered at higher doses. Perseverative hole-poking was observed at the highest dose (5.0) as indicated by increased number of hole-pokes per hole-visit. Apomorphine (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2 mg/kg) decreased mean duration of responses, but in contrast to amphetamine markedly diminished frequency. Locomotor activity was also measured at all doses of both drugs. Our observations indicate that these two stimulant drugs both of which increase motor activity, have markedly different effects on investigatory responses. It is likely that amphetamine increases prepotent response tendencies (i.e., hole-poking), although this does not necessarily reflect enhanced exploration. Further, the results obtained with amphetamine support predictions made by the Lyon-Robbins behavioral theory of amphetamine effects.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Psychostimulant ; Amphetamine ; Stress ; Long-term sensitization ; Social isolation ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of experimential factors on the vulnerability of rats to develop amphetamine (AMPH)- and stressor-induced behavioral sensitization. Young male Wistar rats with previous social experience were isolated from their peers for 2 weeks. 1) The effect of this short-lasting social deprivation were: a) a reduced tendency to explore a fearful environment; b) a prolonged exploratory activity in response to a novel but little fearful environment; and c) a dose-dependent increase in the psychomotor stimulation induced by systemic AMPH injection. 2) After repeated AMPH injections (injection every other day for 10 days), isolated rats exhibited behavioral sensitization at lower doses (0.5 and 0.75 mg/kg) than those required for group-housed rats (1 mg/kg). 3) After being submitted to a repeated stressor (3, 7 or 14 footshock sessions, with 2 days between sessions), the isolated rats exhibited a greater increase in the behavioral responsivity to a subsequent AMPH challenge (1 mg/kg) than did the group-housed rats regardless of the number of stress sessions. In conclusion, these results suggest that experiential factors such as privation of contact with peers (social isolation) may make rats more vulnerable to the long-term repercussions of chronic environmental and pharmacological challenges.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Rat ; Operant behavior ; Fixed-interval ; Ventral tegmental area ; Neurotensin ; Substance P ; Neurokinin-α (substance K) ; d-Ala-Met-enkephalin ; Dopamine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The neuropeptides neurotensin, substance P, neurokinin-α (substance K), and met-enkephalin are present endogenously in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), site of the A10 dopaminergic (DA) cell bodies. In the present study these four peptides were injected bilaterally into the VTA in the rat, and the effects on operant behavior were assessed. Cannulae aimed at the VTA were implanted in four groups of animals, which had been trained to bar-press for food reward on a fixed-interval, 40-s schedule. A fifth group, in which the effects of systemically administered amphetamine were assessed, was also tested. Response rate across the interval was measured, and the index of quarter-life was taken as an indication of the temporal pattern of resonding. In addition, a rate-dependency analysis was carried out for all data. Neurotensin (NT, 0.0175, 0.175, 0.5 μg in 1 μl) dose-dependently decreased response rates without affecting quarter-life, and reduced the number of reinforcements obtained. Substance P (SP, 0.1, 1.0, 3.0 μg) did not affect responding, and neurokinin-α (NKA, 0.1, 1.0, 3.0 μg) induced a small increase in responding. Quarter-life was not affected by SP or NKA, but responding on the nonreinforced lever was significantly increased by both peptides. d-Ala-met-enkephalin (DALA, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 μg) induced a dose-dependent increase in responding which was also rate-dependent, and reduced quarter-life. DALA effects were similar to the classic pattern of responding observed after systemic amphetamine. These results suggest that although all these peptides elicit behavioral activation and may affect DA neuronal activity, the behavioral responses can be differentiated with respect to operant behavior.
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