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  • THERAPY  (2)
  • Thermal comfort  (2)
  • 1
    Keywords: MODEL ; THERAPY ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; RISK ; VALIDITY ; nutrition ; ESTROGEN-RECEPTOR ; ENDOCRINE ; METAANALYSIS ; PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; androgens ; FREE TESTOSTERONE
    Abstract: Prediagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence toward the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of hormone receptor [estrogen receptor (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR)] defined breast cancer. In a case-control study nested within the EPIC cohort (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition), estradiol, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were measured in prediagnostic serum samples from postmenopausal women not using hormone replacement therapy at blood donation. A total of 554 women who developed invasive breast cancer with information on receptor status were matched with 821 control subjects. Conditional logistic regression models estimated breast cancer risk with hormone concentrations according to hormone receptor status of the tumor. Sex steroid hormones were associated with risks of not only ER+PR+ breast cancer [estradiol OR for highest vs. lowest tertile = 2.91 (95% CI: 1.62-5.23), P(trend) 0.002; testosterone OR = 2.27 (95% CI: 1.35-3.81), P(trend) 0.002] but also of ER-PR- breast cancer [estradiol OR = 2.11 (95% CI: 1.00-4.46), P(trend) = 0.05; testosterone OR = 2.06 (95% CI: 0.95-4.46), P(trend) = 0.03], with associations appearing somewhat stronger in the receptor-positive disease. Serum androgens and estrogens are associated with risks of both hormone receptor-negative as well as receptor-positive breast tumors. Further research is needed to establish through which molecular pathways, and during which evolutionary stages of development, androgens and estrogens can promote the occurrence of both receptor-positive and -negative clinical breast tumors.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21813404
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  • 2
    Keywords: CELLS ; AGENTS ; human ; THERAPY ; CLASSIFICATION ; DIAGNOSIS ; SYSTEM ; TOOL ; DIFFERENTIATION ; MOLECULES ; TISSUE ; ANTIGEN ; ANTIGENS ; BIOLOGY ; MOLECULE ; antibodies ; antibody ; GLYCOPROTEIN ; SURFACE ; STRATEGIES ; pathology ; NOMENCLATURE ; AGENT ; RE ; interaction ; IMMUNE-SYSTEM ; cell differentiation
    Abstract: The immune system works through leukocytes interacting with each other, with other cells, with tissue matrices, with infectious agents, and with other antigens. These interactions are mediated by cell-surface glycoproteins and glycolipids. Antibodies against these leukocyte molecules have provided powerful tools for analysis of their structure, function, and distribution. Antibodies have been used widely in hematology, immunology, and pathology, and in research, diagnosis, and therapy. The associated CD nomenclature is commonly used when referring to leukocyte surface molecules and antibodies against them. It provides an essential classification for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The most recent (8th) Workshop and Conference on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens (HLDA), held in Adelaide, Australia, in December 2004, allocated 95 new CD designations and made radical changes to its aims and future operational strategy in order to maintain its relevance to modern human biology and clinical practice
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16020511
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Keywords: Alliesthesia ; Circadian variations ; Onset of sweating ; Thermal comfort ; Thermoregulatory set point
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Different methods of quantifying thermal alliesthesia were used to examine the circadian variations of thermal comfort. At eight different times of the 24 h day, four subjects were exposed to a constant room temperature of 25°C. After 30 min rest, the subjects performed 50 W bicycle ergometer work for 45 min. A 5 s temperature stimulus of 15°, 20°, 25°, 30°, 35°, and 38°C was applied on the hand, forehead, and back of the neck. For each stimulus the subjects voted their degree of thermal comfort on the subjective thermal comfort scale, ranging from +2 for very pleasant to −2 for very unpleasant. The most pleasant temperature on the back of the neck was chosen by voluntary control. This procedure was performed at the start and repeated every 15 min throughout the exposure time. A 5:5 × 2.7 cm2 Peltier thermode was used to give the temperature stimuli. Voluntary control voting was carried out using the temperature control knob without looking at the temperature scale of the thermode. The results suggest that during rest in a state of thermal neutrality the core temperature is about 0.06°C lower than the thermoregulatory set point (Cabanac et al. 1976; Strempel et al. 1976). This deviation (Trect - Tset) from the set point is known in man-made servo-systems as the load error (Benzinger 1979). During rest in an atmosphere of thermal comfort, the “load error” in the human thermostat is found to be negative (Cabanac et al. 1976; Strempel et al. 1976; Benzinger 1979), i.e., Tset 〉 Trect, where Trect is the prevailing core temperature and Tset, is the thermoregulatory set point. The small deviation from the set point is viewed as being necessary to sustain the response and to keep the temperature in equilibrium between production and loss of heat (Benzinger 1979). Thermal comfort limits during work rise from the early morning to the afternoon and then fall slowly towards the minimum level in the morning. The circadian variations of the core temperature load error associated with onset of sweating have a phase shift of 180° (12 h) with the alliesthesial reactions. Using our results and the results from Cabanac et al. (1976), it has been possible to write a circadian thermoregulatory set function to estimate the set point at any point of day time.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Thermal comfort ; Thermal pleasantness ; Thermal stress
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The degree of pleasantness or unpleasantness of thermal sensation aroused by a particular peripheral thermal stimulus has been shown to be an indicator of thermal state of the body in relation to the thermoregulatory set point. This phenomenon is known as thermal alliesthesia. The quantification of thermal alliesthesia was possible using two methods: (1) A set of temperature stimuli (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 38
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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