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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; carcinoma ; Germany ; SITE ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; TISSUE ; CARCINOGENESIS ; PHOSPHORYLATION ; antibodies ; MOUSE ; LESIONS ; PROGRESSION ; immunohistochemistry ; CERVIX ; CELL-LINE ; REGION ; REGIONS ; CARCINOMAS ; INTERCELLULAR COMMUNICATION ; STRATIFIED EPITHELIUM ; JUNCTION ; premalignant ; gap junction ; cell communication
    Abstract: Connexins are proteins that form the connexons, gap junction structures, which allow cells to communicate. Phosphorylation of connexins has been found to impair this communication. Using an antibody specifically recognizing the S279/S282-phosphorylated form of connexin43 (Cx43) for immunohistochemistry, we have analysed Cx43 phosphorylation in normal epithelium, CIN III lesions, and carcinomas of the cervix. We found that in normal epithelium the basal layer was devoid of staining and most of the protein was localized in stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum. In pre-malignant CIN-III lesions Cx43 was strongly phosphorylated, but the basal layer was still negative. In squamous carcinomas, the cells were intensely stained. In these tumours, sites of strong staining were adjacent to less stained regions, suggesting that the tumours are intrinsically heterogeneous. Immunoblotting of proteins extracted from carcinomas with the specific antibody showed the classical pattern of multiple reacting bands, with the appearance of low migrating forms of the protein. Our results suggest that increased S279/S282 phosphorylation of Cx43 is the result of altered tissue structure rather than of cell malignization. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15958277
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  • 2
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; proliferation ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; INFORMATION ; GENE ; GENOME ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; transcription ; DIFFERENTIATION ; TISSUE ; MICE ; DNA ; TISSUES ; SKIN ; BINDING ; BIOLOGY ; MOLECULAR-BIOLOGY ; papillomavirus ; TARGET ; virus ; NO ; TRANSGENIC MICE ; PROMOTER ; PROMOTERS ; cervical cancer ; CERVICAL-CANCER ; REGION ; human papillomavirus ; HIGH-RISK ; HPV ; transactivation ; ONCOGENE ; HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS ; CERVICAL-CARCINOMA ; NETHERLANDS ; REPRESSION ; molecular biology ; molecular ; RE ; PATTERN ; LEVEL ; analysis ; methods ; EVENTS ; LOSSES ; UBIQUITIN ; CANCERS ; microbiology ; E2 PROTEIN ; HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUSES ; animal model ; host ; viral ; UPSTREAM ; UBIQUITIN-C ; biotechnology ; E2 ; READING FRAMES ; E6 PROMOTER ; PAPILLOMAVIRUS DNA-REPLICATION ; ubiquitin C promoter
    Abstract: The E2 early protein of human papillomaviruses (HPV) has been found associated with the mitotic spindle therefore being implicated in the partition of the replicated viral DNA to daughter cells. In addition, E2 proteins bind to the upstream regulatory region of the virus and to cellular promoters modulating thereby cellular transcription and differentiation. In many cervical cancers, the E2 reading frame is interrupted upon incorporation of the viral genome into the host DNA. This results in the loss of the E2 mediated transcriptional repression and uncontrolled expression of the viral oncogenes. All these results have been obtained in transfected cells but no information is available on the E2 effects in the context of the entire organism. Transgenic mice were generated expressing the E2 protein of HPV11 under the control of the Ubiquitin C promoter. E2 mRNA is present in all mice tissues analysed and the E2 protein expressed in the skin (the target tissue of HPV11) was shown by Western blotting, albeit at a very low level. Analysis of the transgenic mice shows no major histological changes in the skin or all other tissues investigated. These data indicate that in transgenic mice the human papillomavirus type 11 E2 does not grossly modulate cellular proliferation or differentiation events
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17701441
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  • 3
    Keywords: PEPTIDE ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; Germany ; human ; KINASE ; MICROSCOPY ; NEW-YORK ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; cell line ; TISSUE ; FAMILY ; ACTIVATED PROTEIN-KINASE ; PHOSPHORYLATION ; treatment ; cell culture ; ACIDS ; antibodies ; antibody ; MAP KINASE ; DISRUPTION ; PLASMA ; MEMBRANE ; STRESS ; LOCALIZATION ; CHROMATOGRAPHY ; AMINO-ACIDS ; PHORBOL-ESTER ; serine ; CHANNEL ; GAP-JUNCTIONAL COMMUNICATION ; growth factors ; hyperosmosis ; INTERCELLULAR COMMUNICATION ; LIVER EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; plasma membranes ; sorbitol ; threonine phosphorylation
    Abstract: We have developed polyclonal antibodies (SA226P) to a peptide of the human connexin43 (Cx43) protein between amino acids 271 and 288 containing phosphorylated S279 and S282. Antibodies specific for the phosphorylated form of the peptide were isolated by double immunoaffinity chromatography and were characterised using proteins of the cell line WB-F344, known to contain large amounts of Cx43. SA226P recognises specifically the slowest migrating Cx43 band in immunoblots of proteins isolated from untreated cells. In immunofluorescence experiments SA226P scarcely stains the plasma membrane in untreated cells in contrast to a commercial antibody recognising all isoforms of the Cx43 protein. EGF or stress treatment of the cells results in a rapid increase in the phosphorylated forms of Cx43 as revealed by immunoblotting. Immunofluorescence experiments reveal that both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated Cx43 could be found at the plasma membrane. Whether phosphorylation of S279/S282 takes place before or after incorporation of Cx43 into the membranes is so far unknown. More interestingly, confocal microscopy using our antibodies and a commercial antibody recognising all isoforms of Cx43 shows the coexistence of differentially phosphorylated forms of the protein at the plasma membrane. Our results indicate that MAP kinases erk1/2 are mainly responsible for this phosphorylation, as already published. Nevertheless, treatment of the cells with anisomycin, known to activate stress kinase p38 but not erk1/2, also results in a weak but reproducible Cx43 phosphorylation
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12483281
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