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  • Hydrophobicity plot  (1)
  • Indomethacin  (1)
  • Thromboxane B2  (1)
  • Epithelial transport
  • Dicarboxylate transport
  • Electron-attracting groups
  • 1990-1994  (2)
  • 1991  (2)
Collection
Keywords
Publisher
Years
  • 1990-1994  (2)
Year
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Transport kinetics ; Distribution ratio ; Driving forces ; Hydrophobicity plot ; Choline ; Acetylcholine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to study the characteristics of contraluminal organic cation transport from the blood site into proximal tubular cells the stopped-flow capillary perfusion method was applied. The disappearance of N 1-[3H]methylnicotinamide (NMeN+) and [3H]tetraethylammonium (TEA+) at different concentrations and contact times was measured and the following parameters evaluated: K m,NMeN = 0.54 mmol/l, J max,NMeN = 0.4 pmol s−1 cm−1; K m,TEA = 0.16 mmol/l, J max,TEA = 0.8 pmol s−1 cm−1. TEA+ inhibited NMeN+ transport and NMeN+ the uptake of TEA+. Thereby, the K i values for inhibition correspond closely to the K m values for uptake. Similar inhibitory potencies of ten organic cation against TEA+ and NMeN+ transport provide further evidence for a common transport system. Omission of HCO 3 − , or Na+ and addition of K+ (with or without Ba2+) reduce NMeN+ transport, while omission of K+ (with or without valinomycin) or addition of thiocyanate has no effect. Since the manoeuvres that depolarize contraluminal electrical potential difference reduce NMeN+ transport, cell-negative electrical potential difference is suggested as a driving force for contraluminal organic cation transport from the interstitium into the cell. Furthermore, the inhibitory potency (app. K i values) of homologous series of primary, secondary, tertiary and hydroxy amines as well as of mono- and bisquarternary ammonium compounds against NMeN+ transport was tested. The inhibitory potency increased in the sequence methyl 〈 ethyl 〈 propyl 〈 butyl and primary 〈 secondary 〈 tertiary amines 〈 quarternary ammonium compounds. With the amines a reversed correlation between K i,NMeN and the octanol/water partition coefficient (log octanol) is seen. With quarternary ammonium compounds the inhibitory potency decreases with increasing molecular size: tetrabutyl- 〉 tetrapentyl- 〉 tetrahexyl- 〉 tetraheptyl 〉 tetraoctylammonium. Introducing two OH groups into triethylamine reduces the inhibitory potency while introduction of two OH groups into diethylamine or three OH groups into triethylamine abolishes the inhibitory potency as a result of reduced hydrophobicity. With choline (trimethylethanolamine) and its analogues the reversed correlation between K i,NMeN and log octanol was also seen. Molecules with a similar hydrophobic moiety to those of the monoammonium compounds, but with two ammonium groups, showed only a small or no inhibitory potency against NMeN+ transport. The data indicate that (a) hydrophobic moieties are important for the interaction with the contraluminal organic cation transporter, and (b) the size of the molecule can be a limiting factor. The reduced or missing interaction of the bisquarternary compound might be caused either by the second charge and/or reduced hydrophobicity and/or too large size of a molecule.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Cyclic GMP ; Prostaglandins ; Prostacyclins ; Thromboxane B2 ; Probenecid ; Indomethacin ; Phosphodiesterase inhibitors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Using the stop-flow peritubular capillary microperfusion method the inhibitory potency (apparent K i values) of cyclic nucleotides and prostanoids against contraluminal p-aminohippurate (PAH), dicarboxylate and sulphate transport was evaluated. Conversely the contraluminal transport rate of labelled cAMP, cGMP, prostaglandin E2, and prostaglandin D2 was measured and the inhibition by different substrates was tested. Cyclic AMP and its 8-bromo and dibutyryl analogues inhibited contraluminal PAH transport with an app. K i, PAH of 3.4, 0.63 and 0.52 mmol/l. The respective app. K i,PAH values of cGMP and its analogues are with 0.27, 0.04 and 0.05 mmol/l, considerably lower. None of the cyclic nucleotides tested interacted with contraluminal dicarboxylate, sulphate and N 1-methylnicotinamide transport. ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine and adenine as well as GTP, GDP, GMP, guanosine and guanine did not inhibit PAH transport while most of the phosphodiesterase inhibitors tested did. Time-dependent contraluminal uptake of [3H]cAMP and [3H]cGMP was measured at different starting concentrations and showed facilitated diffusion kinetics with the following parameters for cAMP: K m=1.5 mmol/l, J max=0.34 pmol s−1 cm−1, r (extracellular/intracellular amount at steady state)=0.91; for cGMP: K m=0.29 mmol/l, J max=0.31 pmol s−1 cm−1, r=0.55. Comparison of app. K i, cGMP with app. K i, PAH of ten substrates gave a linear relation with a ratio of 1.83±0.5. All prostanoids applied inhibited the contraluminal PAH transport; the prostaglandins E1, F1α, A1, B1, E2, F2α, D2, A2 and B2 with an app. K i, PAH between 0.08 and 0.18 mmol/l. The app. K i of the prostacyclins 6,15-diketo-13,14-dihydroxy-F1α (0.22 mmol/l) and Iloprost (0.17 mmol/l) as well as that of leukotrienes B4 (0.2 mmol/l) was in the same range, while the app. K i, PAH of the prostacyclins PGI2 (0.55 mmol/l), 6-keto-PGF1α (0.77 mmol/l), and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF1α (0.57 mmol/l) as well as that of thromboxane Bin2 (0.36 mmol/l) was somewhat higher. None of these prostanoids inhibited contraluminal dicarboxylate transport and only PGB1, E2 and D2 inhibited contraluminal sulphate transport (app. $$K_{i,SO_4^{2--} } $$ 5.4, 11.0, 17.9 mmol/l respectively). Contraluminal influx of labelled PGE2 showed complex transport kinetics with a mixed K m=0.61 mmol/l and J max of 4.26 pmol s−1 cm−1. It was inhibited by probenecid, sulphate and indomethacin. Contraluminal influx of PGD2, however, was only inhibited by probenecid. The data indicate that cyclic nucleotides as well as prostanoids are transported by the contraluminal PAH transporter. For prostaglandin E2 a significant uptake through the sulphate transporter occurs in addition. The hypothesis that prostaglandins as well as 8-bromo and dibutyryl cyclic nucleotides permeate cell membranes by simple diffusion because of their lipid solubility must be considered with reservation.
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