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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Human Physiology ; Toxicology ; Cardiology ; Biomedicine ; Molecular Medicine ; Human Physiology ; Pharmacology/Toxicology ; Cardiology ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9783642175756
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  • 2
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Toxicology ; Biochemistry ; Plant physiology ; Life sciences ; Plant physiology ; Plant Biochemistry ; Pharmacology/Toxicology ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Preface -- Introduction to stress in plants -- Mechanism of heavy metal toxicity and tolerance -- Mechanism of aluminium toxicity and tolerance -- Mechanism of arsenic toxicity and tolerance -- Mechanism of salt toxicity and tolerance -- Mechanism of drought stress and tolerance -- Mechanism of light stress and tolerance -- Mechanism of temperature stress and tolerance -- Mechanism of flood stress and tolerance -- Mechanism of UV-B stress and tolerance
    Abstract: This collection discusses the variety of specific molecular reactions by means of which plants respond to physiological and toxic stress conditions. It focuses on the characterization of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the induction of toxicity and the triggered responses and resistances. The nine chapters, all written by prominent researchers, examine heavy metal toxicity, aluminum toxicity, arsenic toxicity, salt toxicity, drought stress, light stress, temperature stress, flood stress and UV-B stress. In addition, information on the fundamentals of stress responses and resistance mechanisms is provided. The book addresses researchers and students working in the fields of plant physiology and biochemistry
    Pages: VI, 292 p. 48 illus., 8 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783319133683
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Keywords: Key words Antineoplastic agents ; Toxicity tests ; Toxicology ; Guidelines ; Phase I clinical trials
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The entry of new anticancer treatments into phase I clinical trials is ordinarily based on relatively modest preclinical data. This report defines the battery of preclinical tests important for assessing safety under an Investigational New Drug application (IND) and outlines a basis for extrapolating starting doses of investigational anticancer drugs in phase I clinical trials from animal toxicity studies. Types of preclinical studies for the support of marketing of a new anticancer drug are also discussed. This report addresses differences and similarities in the preclinical development of cytotoxic drugs (including photosensitizers and targeted delivery products), drugs used chronically (chemopreventive drugs, hormonal drugs, immunomodulators), and drugs intended to enhance the efficacy (MDR-reversing agents and radiation/chemotherapy sensitizers) or diminish the toxicity of currently used anticancer therapies. Factors to consider in the design of preclinical studies of combination therapies, alternative therapies, and adjuvant therapies in the treatment of cancer, and to support changes in clinical formulations or route of administration, are also discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Decomposition ; Immobilization ; Mineralization ; Bamboo savanna ; Litter types ; Lignin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Decomposition and changes in nutrient content of six litter types (leaves, sheaths, roots, twigs, and wood of bamboo, and grass shoots) were studied in nylon net bags for 2 years. The annual weight loss was (% of initial) bamboo leaves 56.5, bamboo sheaths 79.5, bamboo roots 65.8, bamboo twigs 49.6, bamboo wood 31.2, and grass shoots 74.9. Elemental mobility followed the order K〉Na〉C〉P〉Ca〉N in all components except wood. Generally, an initial increase was followed by a consistent decrease in the contents of N (leaves), P (leaves, roots, wood) and Ca (leaves, roots, grass), and Na (wood). Most of the nutrients were immobilized in the rainy season. C and K contents showed a constant decrease throughout the decomposition period. Materials with a greater C:N ratio (〉50) tended to accumulate more nutrients and retain them for longer, except for the bamboo twigs. The critical C:N ratio (at which a net release of N occured) for the leaf material was 25. Litter components with more initial N (sheaths) showed greater weight loss than those with less N (leaves, twigs, and wood). Overall, N and P were lost at the slowest rates while C and K were lost at faster rates. Initial lignin, lignin: N, C:N and C concentrations had a better predictive value for annual weight loss and nutrient release in bivariate relationships. A combination of the initial lignin value and the C: N ratio explained 93% of the variation in annual weight loss. A significant relationship was also observed between the annual weight loss rate and the nutrient mineralization/release rate.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Perionyx excavatus ; Earthworms ; Feeding activity ; Plant residues ; Mineralization ; Maturity parameters ; Vermicomposting ; C/N ratio ; Straw
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract An outdoor study was undertaken using polyethylene containers to assess the suitability of different organic residues, soybean straw (Glycine max L. Merril.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), maize stover (Zea mays L.), chickpea straw (citer arietinum L.) and city garbage, as food for the tropical epigeic earthwormPerionyx excavatus, and to assess the influence of this earthworm on the decomposition of these materials. Maize stover was found to be the most suitable of the food materials used. Population growth ofP. excavatus was enhanced by addition of these organic materials in the temperature range 24°-30°C, while the population was adversely affected above 30°C in a vermiculture system. Addition of earthworms accelerated the breakdown of residues, which ultimately resulted in a lowering of the C:N ratio, water-soluble carbon and carbohydrates, and increased ash percentage and cation exchange capacity compared with their respective controls.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key wordsPerionyx excavatus ; Earthworms ; Feeding activity ; Plant residues ; Mineralization ; Maturity parameters ; Vermicomposting ; C/N ratio ; Straw
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract An outdoor study was undertaken using polyethylene containers to assess the suitability of different organic residues, soybean straw (Glycine max L. Merril.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), maize stover (Zea mays L.), chickpea straw (cicer arietinum L.) and city garbage, as food for the tropical epigeic earthworm Perionyx excavatus, and to assess the influence of this earthworm on the decomposition of these materials. Maize stover was found to be the most suitable of the food materials used. Population growth of P. excavatus was enhanced by addition of these organic materials in the temperature range 24°–30°C, while the population was adversely affected above 30°C in a vermiculture system. Addition of earthworms accelerated the breakdown of residues, which ultimately resulted in a lowering of the C:N ratio, water-soluble carbon and carbohydrates, and increased ash percentage and cation exchange capacity compared with their respective controls.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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