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  • Organic Chemistry  (16)
  • Triticum aestivum  (9)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: enantiomer ; racemates ; separations ; chiral homology ; synergism ; push/pull model ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A new “push/pull” model has been developed to explain synergistic effects observed in a system in which a chiral stationary phase (CSP) is used in combination with its homologous chiral mobile phase additive (CMPA). The model predicts the beneficial CMPA enantiomer and the counterproductive CMPA enantiomer a priori. Thus, an (R)-CSP will obtain positive synergism from a homologous (S)-CMPA and negative synergism from a homologous (R)-CMPA. The reverse is true for an (S)-CSP. The importance of structural homology between the CSP and the CMPA is demonstrated. Furthermore, the analysis time is decreased relative to the use of a CSP alone, because the retention time of the analyte peaks decreases when the CMPAs are used. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Mitochondrion ; Transcription ; Guanylyltransferase ; Triticum aestivum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary To identify transcription initiation sites in wheat mitochondria, the nascent 5′-ends of transcripts were specifically labeled by incubation of wheat mitochondrial RNA with [α-32P]GTP in the presence of the enzyme guanylyltransferase. After separation of the resulting capped transcripts by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels, individual RNAs were recovered and directly sequenced. Four RNA sequences obtained in this way were localized upstream of the protein-coding genes atpA, coxII, coxIII and orf25. Comparison of mRNA and gene sequences allowed precise positioning of transcription initiation sites for these four genes. Sequence similarities immediately upstream of these sites define a conserved motif that we suggest as a candidate regulatory element in wheat mtDNA. The relationship between this motif and putative mitochondrial promoters in other plant species is discussed.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Secale cereale ; Triticum aestivum ; Ribosomal RNA genes ; Mitochondrial DNA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The mitochondrial 18S and 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes of rye, plus a total of about 90 kilobase pairs of flanking DNA, have been cloned and maps of restriction enzyme cleavage sites have been constructed. Like their homologs from hexaploid wheat, the rye genes are closely linked and are part of a three-copy family of recombining repeats (the “18S/5S repeat”). The rye repeat probably also contains a mitochondrial tRNAfMet gene, which the wheat repeat is known to carry. However, despite the overall organizational similarity between the wheat and rye 18S/5S repeats in the immediate vicinity of their coding regions, extensive rearrangement of flanking sequences has taken place during evolutionary divergence of the two species. Our data provide additional support for an emerging picture of plant mitochondrial genomes as evolving much more rapidly in structure than in sequence.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Light regulation ; psbN ; Triticum aestivum ; Etioplast
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The nucleotide sequence of a region of wheat chloroplast DNA containing the psbB gene for the 47 kDa chlorophyll a-binding protein of photosystem II has been determined. The gene encodes a polypeptide of 508 amino acid residues which is predicted to contain six hydrophobic membrane-spanning regions. The psbB gene is located 562 bp upstream of the psbH gene for the 10 kDa phosphoprotein of photosystem II. A small open reading frame of 38 codons is located between psbB and psbH, and on the opposite strand the psbN gene, encoding a photosystem II polypeptide of 43 amino acid residues, is located between orf38 and psbH. S1 nuclease mapping indicated that the 5′ ends of transcripts were located 371 and 183 bp upstream of the psbB translation initiation codon. Predominant transcripts of 2.1 kb and 1.8 kb for psbB and 0.4 kb for psbH were present in RNA isolated from etiolated and greening wheat seedlings. Immunodecoration of Western blots indicated that the 47 kDa polypeptide was absent, or present in very low amounts, in dark-grown tissue and accumulated on greening, whereas the 10 kDa polypeptide was present in similar amounts in both dark-grown and greening seedlings. The 10 kDa polypeptide was phosphorylated in vitro by incubating wheat etioplast membranes with [γ3 2P] ATP.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Triticum aestivum ; Secale cerele ; Ribosomal RNA genes ; Mitochondrial DNA ; Recombining-repeats ; Evolution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The mitochondrial genomes of wheat and rye each contain a three-member family of recombining repeat peat sequences (the “18S/5S repeat”) that encode genes for 18S and 5S rRNAs (rrn18 and rrn5) and tRNAfMet (trnfM). Here we present, for wheat and rye, the sequence and boundaries of the “common sequence unit” (CSU) that is shared between all three repeat copies in each species. The wheat CSU is 4,429 base-pairs long and contains (in addition to trnfM, rrn18 and rrn5) a putative promoter, three tRNA-like elements (“t-elements”), and part of a pseudogene (“ψatpA c”) that is homologous to chloroplast atpA, which encodes the α subunit of chloroplast F1 ATPase. The rye CSU is somewhat smaller (2,855 base pairs) but contains much the same genic and other sequence elements as its wheat counterpart, except that two of the three t-elements as well as ψatpA c are found in only one of the three downstream flanks of the 18S/5S repeat, outside the CSU boundaries. In interpreting the seuuence data in terms of the evolutionary history of the 18S/5S-repeat family of wheat and rye, we conclude that (1) the wheat-rye form of the 18S/5S repeat most likely originated between 3 and 14 million years ago, in a lineage that gave rise to wheat and rye but not to barley, oasts, rice or maize; (2) the close linkage (1-bp apart) between trnfM and rrn18 is similarly limited in its taxonomic distribution to the wheat/rye lineage; (3) the trnfM-rrn18 pair arose via a single mutation that inserted a sequence block containing trnfM immediately upstream of rrn18; and (4) the presence of a putative promoter upstream of rrn18 in all wheat and rye repeats is consistent with all three repeat copies being transcriptionally active. We discuss these conclusions in the light of the possible functional significance of recombining-repeats in plant mitochondrial genomes.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Using a flourescence-detected ethidium displacement assay, the calf thymus DNA complexation properties of 27 mono-, di-, tri-, tetra- and hexacationic polyamines were determined. The DNA-binding affinity of these polyamine compounds increased with increasing cationic charge on the polyamine. Although most of the compounds exhibited no base pair binding selectivity, two of the tricationic polyamines possessing additional neutral amine groups exhibited approximately tenfold GC binding selectivities.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: ferredoxin ; PetF gene ; circadian rhythm ; light regulation ; wheat ; Triticum aestivum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A genomic clone encoding the precursor of wheat leaf ferredoxin has been isolated and characterised. The uninterrupted PetF gene encodes a polypeptide of 143 amino acid residues, consisting of an N-terminal presequence of 46 amino acid residues and a mature polypeptide of 97 amino acid residues. Southern blot analysis suggests that six copies of the PetF gene are present in the wheat haploid genome. Northern blot analysis has shown that the genes are both developmentally and light regulated in wheat seedlings and provides evidence that a circadian rhythm regulates the steady-state levels of ferredoxin transcripts. The intact wheat gene and several chimeric constructs, containing portions of the 5′-upstream region fused to the β-glucuronidase reporter gene, have been introduced into tobacco plants, but levels of β-glucuronidase activity above background were not detected, suggesting that the 5′-upstream region is unable to function as a promoter in tobacco plants.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: chloroplast gene ; iron-sulphur protein ; psaC ; Pisum sativum ; Triticum aestivum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The gene for the 8 kDa subunit of photosystem I has been located in the small single copy region of wheat chloroplast DNA by coupled transcription-translation of cloned fragments of DNA and by DNA sequence analysis. The pea gene for this subunit was located in pea chloroplast DNA by using the wheat gene as a probe. The location was confirmed by immunoprecipitation of the products of coupled transcription-translation of cloned DNA with antiserum raised against the small subunits of pea photosystem I and by DNA sequence analysis. The deduced amino acid sequences of the pea and wheat proteins are identical in seventy-six out of the eighty-one amino acid residues. There are nine conserved cysteine residues, eight of which are arranged in the primary structure in a similar way to those in bacterial ferredoxins containing two 4Fe-4S centres, suggesting that the polypeptide binds iron sulphur centres A and B of photosystem I.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: mitochondrial DNA ; repeated sequences ; ribosomal RNA ; t-elements ; Triticum aestivum ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We report the sequence of a 7.2 kilobase pair DNA fragment containing a copy of the wheat mitochondrial gene (rrn26) that encodes the mitochondrial large-subunit ribosomal RNA (26S rRNA). The mature 26S rRNA was determined by direct RNA sequencing to be 3467 nucleotides long, and to share a 5′-terminal pentanucleotide (5′-AUCAU), thought to be important in post-transcriptional processing, with the wheat mitochondrial small-subunit (18S) rRNA. Two other prominent features of the sequence were noted. First, upstream of rrn26 are located two tandem copies of a 70 base pair element containing a putative mitochondrial promoter motif (TCGTATAAAAA). Second, downstream of rrn26 is a sequence element that, if transcribed, would produce and RNA with a secondary structure resembling that of tRNAs but differing sufficiently from the latter structure to preclude any transcript from functioning normally in translation. These upstream and downstream sequence elements may play a role in the expression of rrn26 in wheat mitochondria.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: clpP gene ; rps12 gene ; ribosomal protein S12 ; intron ; Triticum aestivum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
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