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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus ; diabetic nephropathy ; apolipoprotein(a) ; cardiovascular disease ; lipid metabolism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The relative mortality from cardiovascular disease is on average increased five-fold in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy compared to non-diabetic subjects. We assessed the possible contribution of dyslipidaemia in general and elevated serum apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) in particular. Type 2 diabetic patients with normo-, micro- and macroalbuminuria were compared with healthy subjects. Each group consisted of 37 subjects matched for age, sex and diabetes duration. Serum creatinine in the nephropathy group was 105 (54–740) Μmol/l. The prevalence of ischaemic heart disease (resting ECG, Minnesota, Rating Scale) was 57, 35, 19 and 2% in macro-, micro- and normoalbuminuric diabetic patients and healthy subjects, respectively. The prevalence of ischaemic heart disease was higher in all diabetic groups as compared to healthy subjects (p〈0.05), and higher in macroalbuminuric as compared to normoalbuminuric diabetic patients (p〈0.01). There was no significant difference between apo(a) in the four groups: 161 (10–1370), 191 (10–2080), 147 (10–942), 102 (10–1440) U/l (median (range)) in macro-, micro- and normoalbuminuric groups and healthy subjects. Serum total-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were not significantly different when comparing healthy subjects and each diabetic group. Apolipoprotein A-I was lower (p〈0.05) in all diabetic groups as compared to healthy subjects (nephropathy vs healthy subjects): 1.50±0.25 vs 1.69±0.32 g/l (mean ± SD). Triglyceride was higher (p〈0.05) in patients with nephropathy and microalbuminuria as compared to healthy subjects (nephropathy vs healthy subjects): 2.01 (0.66–14.7) vs 1.09 (0.41–2.75) mmol/l (median (range)). Apolipoprotein B was higher (p〈0.02) in patients with nephropathy as compared to the other three groups (nephropathy vs healthy subjects): 1.54±0.47 vs 1.33±0.30 g/l. In conclusion, our case-control study has confirmed that Type 2 diabetic patients with increased urinary albumin excretion frequently suffer from dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular disease. However, our study revealed no significant elevation in serum concentration of apo(a) in patients with diabetic nephropathy, but numbers were small.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus ; microalbuminuria ; macroalbuminuria ; arterial hypertension ; retinopathy ; macroangiopathy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The prevalence of micro- and macroalbuminuria was determined in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients, less than 76 years of age, attending a diabetic clinic during 1987. All eligible patients (n=557) were asked to collect a 24-h urine sample for quantitative albumin analysis. Urine collections were obtained in 296 males and 253 females (96%). Normoalbuminuria were defined as urinary albumin excretion≤30 mg/24 h (n=323), microalbuminuria as 31–299 mg/24 h (n=151), and macroalbuminuria as ≥300 mg/ 24 h (n=75). The prevalence of macroalbuminuria was significantly higher in males (20%) than in females (6%), while the prevalence of microalbuminuria was almost identical in males (26%) and females (29%). The prevalence of arterial hypertension increased with increased albuminuria, being 48%, 68%, and 85% in patients with normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria respectively. Prevalence of proliferative retinopathy rose with increasing albuminuria, being 2%, 5% and 12% in patients with normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria respectively. Prevalence of coronary heart disease, based on Minnesota coded electrocardiograms, was more frequent in patients with macroalbuminuria (46%) compared to patients with microalbuminuria (26%) and patients with normoalbuminuria (22%). Foot ulcers were more frequent in micro- and macroalbuminuric patients, being 13% and 25%, respectively, compared to 5% in patients with normoalbuminuria. This cross-sectional study has revealed a high prevalence of microalbuminuria (27%) and macroalbuminuria (14%) in Type 2 diabetic patients. Patients with raised urinary albumin excretion are characterized by obesity, elevated haemoglobin Alc, increased frequency of arterial hypertension, proliferative retinopathy, coronary heart disease and foot ulcers. Thus, these findings suggest that urinary excretion of albumin should be monitored routinely in patients with Type 2 diabetes.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus ; diabetic nephropathy ; kidney function
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We evaluated the impact of some putative progression promoters on kidney function in albuminuric Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with biopsyproven diabetic glomerulosclerosis. Twenty-six patients (1 female) with a mean age of 52 (standard error 2) years and a known mean duration of diabetes of 9 (1) years were followed-up prospectively for a mean of 5.2 (range 1.0–7.0) years. Twenty-one patients received antihypertensive treatment. During the observation period the glomerular filtration rate decreased from 83 (24–146) to 58 (2–145) ml·min−1·1.73 m−2 (mean (range)) (p〈0.001). The mean rate of decline in glomerular filtration rate was 5.7 (−3.5 to 22.0) ml/min per year. Albuminuria increased from 1.2 (0.3–7.2) to 2.3 (0.4–8.0) g/24 h (geometric mean (range)) (p〈0.001). Arterial blood pressure remained unchanged: 162/93 (SE 4/3) and 161/89 (4/2) mm Hg. Univariate analysis showed the rate of decline in glomerular filtration rate to correlate with systolic blood pressure (r=0.71,p〈0.001), mean blood pressure (r=0.56,p〈0.005), albuminuria (r=0.58,p〈0.005) and the initial glomerular filtration rate (r=−0.49,p〈0.02). The rate of decline in glomerular filtration rate did not correlate significantly with dietary protein intake, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or HbA1c. Three patients died from uraemia and four patients died from cardiovascular disease. Two patients required renal replacement therapy at the end of the observation period. Our prospective observational study revealed that one-fifth of the patients developed end-stage renal failure during the 5-year observation period. The decline in glomerular filtration rate varied considerably between patients. Increase in arterial blood pressure to a hypertensive level is an early feature of diabetic nephropathy. Elevated systolic blood pressure accelerates the progression of diabetic nephropathy in Type 2 diabetic patients.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus ; diabetic nephropathy ; diabetic glomerulopathy ; basement membrane ; mesangium ; mesangial matrix ; glomerular hypertrophy ; glomerular occlusion ; stereology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Glomerular ultrastructure was examined in a series of 20 Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with proteinuria. Reference was made to data previously obtained in non-diabetic kidney donors and in Type 1 (insulindependent) diabetic patients with similar degrees of proteinuria. The Type 2 diabetic patients demonstrated the changes which characterize the diabetic glomerulopathy seen in Type 1 diabetic patients: basement membrane thickening, and increase in the mesangium and mesangial matrix expressed as fraction of the glomerular volume. Among the Type 2 diabetic patients there was more variation then among the Type 1 diabetic patients, as this group included subjects with normal parameters. The group means and coefficients of variation (=SD/mean) of the glomerulopathy parameters combined in the glomerulopathy index=basement membrane thickness/10+Vv(matrix/glom)·100 were 81 (0.30) and 92 (0.15) in the two diabetic groups, clearly different from the non-diabetic index, 42 (0.16). All Type 2 diabetic patients who also had retinopathy had a glomerulopathy index above the normal range. Similar changes in glomerular composition were seen in the two diabetic groups: with increasing glomerulopathy the volume of matrix dominated over the peripheral basement membrane, and a shift in the ratio of interfaces was seen: mesangial surface towards capillary lumen increased relative to the urinary surface, and peripheral capillary surface comprised less of the total capillary surface. Data indicated marked glomerular hypertrophy, which correlated with the mesangial volume fraction, thus encompassing preserved filtration surface per glomerulus. An inverse correlation obtained between the index of glomerulopathy and current glomerular filtration rate, as well as the ensuing rate of decline in glomerular filtration rate, as well as the ensuing rate of decline in glomerular filtration rate: (index (glomerulopathy) vs rate of decline in glomerular filtration rater=0.84,p〈0.0001). No correlation was found between glomerular volume and the ensuing rate of decline in glomerular filtration rate.
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